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Latest & greatest articles for adhd
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ADHD (or Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a neurodevelopmental type mental disorder. It is characterised two main categories of two types of behavioural problems:
hyperactivity and impulsiveness
Most people with ADHD have problems that fall into both categories, but it doesn’t have to be the case. If a person just has inattentiveness it is referred to as attention deficit disorder (ADD).
Methylphenidate is a commonly used medication used to treat patients suffering from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Methylphenidate is part of a group of drugs known as stimulants. Central nervous system stimulants help change the amounts of natural substances in the brain. But it is not the only intervention; others include Bupropion, exercise and CBT (Cognitive behavioural therapy).
Extensive ADHD research and case studies have been carried out over numerous years. Trip has unrivalled coverage of the evidence base including systematic reviews, clinical trials, clinical guidelines and case studies.
Studies are ongoing to assess the safety and effectiveness of stimulants used on children with ADHD and intellectual disabilities as well as in other populations and other interventions. Trip also includes ongoing controlled trials and ongoing systematic reviews (via the PROSPERO database).
Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder in offspring: a systematic review, meta-analysis and quasi-experimental family-based study. Previous studies are inconclusive concerning the association between maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) in offspring. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify this association. To address the variation (...) adjusted for all confounders identified in previous studies. Stratified Cox models were applied to data on full cousins and full siblings to further control for unmeasured familial confounding.Eight cohorts with a total of 784 804 mother-child pairs were included in the meta-analysis. Maternal overweight [RRoverweight = 1.31 (1.25-1.38), I2 = 6.80%] and obesity [RRobesity = 1.92 (1.84-2.00), I2 = 0.00%] were both associated with an increased risk of ADHD in offspring. In the population-based cohort
Associations of Prescribed ADHD Medication in Pregnancy with Pregnancy-Related and Offspring Outcomes: A Systematic Review. Increasing numbers of reproductive-aged women are using attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) medications. Findings from studies exploring the safety of these medications during pregnancy are mixed, and it is unclear whether associations reflect causal effects or could be partially or fully explained by other factors that differ between exposed and unexposed (...) offspring.The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the adverse pregnancy-related and offspring outcomes associated with exposure to prescribed ADHD medication during pregnancy with a focus on how studies to date have handled the influence of confounding.We searched PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and Web of Science up to 1 July 2019 without any restrictions on language or date of publication. We included all observational studies (e.g., cohort studies, case-control studies, case-crossover studies, cross
Attention-Deficit/HyperactivityDisorder and Outcome After Concussion: A Systematic Review. To synthesize the literature and conduct a gap analysis on the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) and clinical outcome from sport-related concussion.The electronic search for this systematic review (PROSPERO ID: CRD42019128281) was conducted in February 2019 using terms related to concussion, sports/athletics, and predictors/modifiers of outcome to search the PubMed (...) , PsycINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Eligible studies evaluated the association between ADHD and outcome from sport-related concussion. Of 4014 studies screened, 359 full-text articles were reviewed, with 14 studies ultimately included, involving 3623 participants (n = 359 [9.9%] with ADHD).Study samples were primarily from specialty medical clinics (57.1%) and high school or college athletic groups (28.6%). Only 2 studies reported
Sleep disturbance in children with attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder: A systematic review. The aim of the present systematic review was to compare sleep disorders in children, from 7 to 12 years old, with and without an attention-deficithyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis. Electronic literature search of PubMed, LILACS, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases was conducted in September 2017. We included cross-sectional observational studies comparing the sleep (...) of children between 7 and 12 years old, with and without an ADHD diagnosis, reported according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. The studies with other research designs, those that included adolescents and/or adults in the sample and those who evaluated the sleep of children with ADHD and other associated comorbidities were excluded. A total of 1911 articles were identified. After analyzing, 8 articles were compatible with the theme and included in the review
Attention-deficit/ hyperactivitydisorder mobile apps: A systematic review. Attention-Deficit/ HyperactivityDisorder (ADHD) is a prevalent condition in children and adolescents. Although there are pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for this disorder, barriers in accessing evidence-based treatments are still a major problem. Digital health interventions are promising for multiple mental health problems. Recent years have brought an increase in the number of existing mobile apps (...) designed for the management of ADHD. The aim of this study was to systematically review the existing mobile apps designed for ADHD in terms of general characteristics, empirical support for their development and efficacy/ effectiveness, and to describe the content and design of the four most downloaded ADHD apps.We conducted systematic searches on iTunes/iOS (Apple App Store), Google Play and the National Health Service Health Apps Library up to May 2017 and checked for changes in March and September
Appraisal of clinical practice guidelines for the management of attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) using the AGREE II Instrument: A systematic review. High quality evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have a major impact on the appropriate diagnosis and management and positive outcomes. The evidence-based healthcare for patients with attentiondeficithyperactivedisorder (ADHD) is challenging. The objective of this study was to appraise the quality of published CPGs (...) for ADHD.A systematic review was conducted for ADHD CPGs using CPG databases, DynaMed, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The quality of each included CPG was appraised by three independent appraisers using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument.Six CPGs were critically reviewed. The AGREE II standardized domain scores revealed variation between the quality of these CPGs with the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE), University of Michigan Health System
Particulate Matter Exposure and Attention-Deficit/HyperactivityDisorder in Children: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies. Attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) is the most common cognitive and behavioural disorder affecting children, with a worldwide-pooled prevalence of around 5%. Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is suspected to be associated with autism spectrum disorders and recent studies have investigated the relationship between PM exposure and ADHD (...) association between PM exposure to outdoor air pollution and behavioral problems related to attention. Despite these results, we found a significant degree of heterogeneity among the study designs. Furthermore, 11 studies were judged to be at a probably high risk of bias in the exposure assessment. In conclusion, we opine that further high quality studies are still needed in order to clarify the association between PM exposure and ADHD diagnosis.
Earlier versus later cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) in attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD): A meta-analysis. The current meta-analysis summarizes relevant literature on earlier (P100, N100, P200, N200, ERN/Ne) versus later (P300, Pe, CNV) cognitive Event-Related Potential (ERP) differences between children, adolescents, and adults with Attention-Deficit/HyperactivityDisorder (ADHD) and without ADHD (non-ADHD). Furthermore, the heterogeneity in previous research (...) is addressed by analyzing potentially relevant demographic and methodological moderators (age group, IQ, medication, comorbidity, task, cognitive function, modality, inter-stimulus-interval, number of electrodes). Via database search 52 relevant articles were identified including n = 1576 ADHD and n = 1794 non-ADHD. Using multilevel-models, pooled effect sizes were calculated. For earlier components, individuals with ADHD showed shorter Go-P100-latencies than non-ADHD. For later ERPs, individuals with ADHD
A systematic review of the effectiveness of sleep hygiene in children with ADHD. Attentiondeficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) is often accompanied by sleep problems in children. Sleep hygiene is defined as a set of behavioural, environmental, or cognitive modifications to improve sleep, and is routinely clinically utilised as first-line treatment for insomnia in ADHD. The objective of this systematic review of the literature is to evaluate the effectiveness of sleep hygiene interventions (...) for sleep difficulties in children with ADHD. Sixteen relevant articles met the inclusion criteria, involving 1,469 participants, with a mean age of 9.6 years, across 6 countries. Fifteen studies found that sleep hygiene interventions were effective in improving sleep, while one did not show any significant improvement. Definite conclusions on the effectiveness of the interventions are difficult to draw due to the limited number of studies and a high risk of bias. There is growing evidence to support
Effects of neurofeedback versus methylphenidate for the treatment of ADHD: systematic review and meta-analysis of head-to-head trials. The comparative efficacy and tolerability of methylphenidate (MPH) and neurofeedback (NF) in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) remains uncertain. This study aimed to fill this gap by means of a systematic review/meta-analysis.PubMed, OVID, ERIC, Web of Science, ClinialTrials.gov and a set of Chinese databases were searched until 22 (...) August 2018. Standardised mean differences (SMD) were pooled using comprehensive meta-analysis software.18 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included (778 individuals with ADHD in the NF arm and 757 in the MPH group, respectively; 13 studies in Chinese, five in English). At the study first endpoint, MPH was significantly more efficacious than NF on ADHD core symptoms (ADHD symptoms combined: SMD=-0.578, 95% CI (-1.063 to -0.092)) and on two neuropsychological parameters (inattention:-0.959
The involvement of the canonical Wnt-signaling receptor LRP5 and LRP6 gene variants with ADHD and sexual dimorphism: Association study and meta-analysis. Wnt-signaling is one of the most abundant pathways involved in processes such as cell-proliferation, -polarity, and -differentiation. Altered Wnt-signaling has been linked with several neurodevelopmental disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) as well as with cognitive functions, learning and memory. Particularly (...) , lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) or LRP6 coreceptors, responsible in the activation of the canonical Wnt-pathway, were associated with cognitive alterations in psychiatric disorders. Following the hypothesis of Wnt involvement in ADHD, we investigated the association of genetic variations in LRP5 and LRP6 genes with three independent child and adolescent ADHD (cADHD) samples (total 2,917 participants), followed by a meta-analysis including previously published data. As ADHD is more prevalent
Cognitive rehabilitation for attentiondeficits following stroke. Many survivors of stroke report attentional impairments, such as diminished concentration and distractibility. However, the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation for improving these impairments is uncertain.This is an update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2000 and previously updated in 2013.To determine whether people receiving cognitive rehabilitation for attention problems 1. show better outcomes (...) clinical trials (CCTs) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of cognitive rehabilitation for impairments of attention for people with stroke. We did not consider listening to music, meditation, yoga, or mindfulness to be a form of cognitive rehabilitation. We only considered trials that selected people with demonstrable or self-reported attentionaldeficits. The primary outcomes were measures of global attentional functions, and secondary outcomes were measures of attentional domains (i.e. alertness
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Risk of DisruptiveBehavioralDisorders in the Offspring of Parents with Severe Psychiatric Disorders. Inconsistent results of the association between severe psychiatric disorders (SPD) in parents and the risk of disruptivebehavioraldisorders (DBD) including conduct disorders (CD) and oppositional defiant disorders (ODD) in the offspring have been found by previous epidemiologic studies. PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Scopus were searched (...) for relevant studies. Fourteen studies met the predefined criteria for inclusion. A meta-analysis of the included studies revealed an elevated risk of DBD in the offspring of parents with SPD, bipolar, and depressive disorders. Our further analysis considering the specific DBD as an outcome showed that parents with SPD are at an increased risk of having a child with ODD as well as CD. Moreover, the current meta-analysis found that the children of parents with bipolar disorder were also at increased risk
Maternal and neonatal outcomes after exposure to ADHD medication during pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) medications are used by increasing numbers of reproductive-age women. The safety of these medications during pregnancy has not been well described.A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with exposure to ADHD medication during pregnancy. The PubMed (...) and Embase databases were searched to identify potential studies for inclusion.Eight cohort studies that estimated adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes associated with exposure to ADHD medication during pregnancy were included. Exposure to ADHD medication was associated with an increased risk of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission compared with no exposure at any time (risk ratio (RR) 1.88; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7-2.08) and compared with women with exposure either before or after
Association between exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Some studies have shown that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a dangerous factor for attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD). This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to clarify this relationship, and to collect and analyze all the relevant evidences in published reports of epidemiologic studies (...) with the age range of 5-15 years old, and 93.6% were living in America. Four of the studies were placed in one group, due to having a common author (Perera). Moreover, a significant association was found between PAH exposure and ADHD in these studies (odds ratio = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.75-3.78); however, in all studies, there was no significant association between PAH exposure and ADHD for children (overall odds ratio = 1.99, 95% CI = 0.96-4.11) with low heterogeneity (I2 = 28.73%; P value < 0.001). This study
Low-moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and offspring attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD): systematic review and meta-analysis. To evaluate the available evidence on the association between low-to-moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and the development of attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) symptoms in the offspring.We systematically reviewed and meta-analysed studies reporting an association between low and/or moderate PAE and offspring ADHD symptoms (attention (...) . Eight studies found no association and two studies suggested an apparent protective effect of low PAE in hyperactivity/inattention symptoms in boys. These results were confirmed by the meta-analysis showing no association between ≤ 20 g/week [OR 1.01 (0.68-1.49)], ≤ 50 g/week [OR 0.94 (0.85-1.03)] and ≤ 70 g/week [OR 0.94 (0.86-1.02)] and ADHD symptoms, with no evidence of publication bias. Stratified analysis by sex for a PAE ≤ 50 g/week exposed less risk of ADHD symptoms in boys compared to girls
Association between exposure to air pollutants and attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Recent studies have reached mixed conclusions regarding the association between exposure to air pollutants and attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD). We performed systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether air pollutants were risk factors for the development of ADHD in children. We systematically searched databases for all (...) relevant studies up to 2 July 2019. Together, the studies indicated that exposure to PAHs (risk ratio (RR): 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82-1.17), NOx (RR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.94-1.15), and PM (RR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.93-1.33) did not have any material relationship with an increased risk of ADHD. Heterogeneity of study data was low (I2: 2.7%, P = 0.409) for studies examining PAHs, but was substantial for NOx and PM (I2: 68.4%, P = 0.007 and I2: 60.1%, P = 0.014, respectively). However, these results
, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: Atomoxetine is prescribed for AttentionDeficitHyperactivityDisorder (ADHD). About a third of children and adolescents with autism also suffer from ADHD. We carried out an analysis of data reported from a specific kind of medication trials which had examined the effectiveness and side effects of atomoxetine in this patient population. We could find only three such trials and analyzed the reported data. Our analysis revealed that atomoxetine is effective (...) Atomoxetine for attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder in children and adolescents with autism: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Atomoxetine is prescribed to children with autism spectrum disorder having symptoms of attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder. We sought to examine the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine in this population. After screening for inclusion criteria, we identified three randomized placebo controlled trials involving 241 children. We assessed internal validity
Effect of Continuing and Discontinuing Medications on Quality of Life After Symptomatic Remission in Attention-Deficit/HyperactivityDisorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. This study aimed to compare the effect of continuing and discontinuing medications on quality of life of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD).PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were searched using generic terms for ADHD, discontinuing, continuing, pharmacotherapy, and randomized (...) controlled trials without date or language restrictions.Of the 3,672 screened studies, 9 met the predefined inclusion criteria on patients with ADHD; 5 of these 9 studies reporting on 1,463 patients (children and adolescents, n = 894; adults, n = 569) measured quality of life and were included in this meta-analysis. Only randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled withdrawal trials of ADHD medications were included.Data were independently extracted according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic