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Contemporary HIV/AIDS research: Insights from knowledge management theory Knowledge management as a field is concerned with the management of knowledge, including the management of knowledge in research processes. Knowledge management theory has the potential to support research into problems such as HIV, antibiotic resistance and others, particularly in terms of aspects of scientific research related to the contribution of social science. To date, however, these challenges remain with us
TLR5 signaling in murine bone marrow induces hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation and aids survival from radiation Administration of the bacterial protein flagellin to mice activates innate immune signaling that protects against an array of challenges, including ionizing radiation. Herein, we define the underlying mechanism for this protection. We report that flagellin treatment induces proliferation and mobilization of bone marrow cells that aid survival following irradiation
New Opportunities in Exposure Assessment of Occupational Epidemiology: Use of Measurements to Aid Exposure Reconstruction in Population-Based Studies Exposure assessment efforts in population-based studies are increasingly incorporating measurements. The published literature was reviewed to identify the measurement sources and the approaches used to incorporate measurements into these efforts.The variety of occupations and industries in these studies made collecting participant-specific
Do Less Harm: Evaluating HIV Programmatic Alternatives in Response to Cutbacks in Foreign Aid. Resource-limited nations must consider their response to potential contractions in international support for HIV programs.To evaluate the clinical, epidemiologic, and budgetary consequences of alternative HIV program scale-back strategies in 2 recipient nations, the Republic of South Africa (RSA) and Côte d'Ivoire (CI).Model-based comparison between current standard (CD4 count at presentation of 0.260 (...) and most efficient alternatives for achieving budget cuts of 10% to 20% are applied, every year of life lost will save roughly $900 in HIV-related outlays in RSA and $600 to $900 in CI.Scale-back programs, when combined, may result in clinical and budgetary synergies and offsets.The magnitude and details of budget cuts are not yet known, nor is the degree to which other international partners might step in to restore budget shortfalls.Scaling back international aid to HIV programs will have severe
Mar;2(1):42-9 8287225 N Engl J Med. 1983 Dec 29;309(26):1593-9 6417538 Oncotarget. 2017 Jan 31;8(5):8765-8774 28060738 Lancet Infect Dis. 2013 Apr;13(4):349-61 23531388 PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47542 23094059 Blood. 2010 Apr 15;115(15):3017-24 20130244 J Clin Oncol. 2006 Sep 1;24(25):4123-8 16896005 Lancet Oncol. 2015 May;16(5):541-9 25842160 J AcquirImmune Defic Syndr. 2011 Mar 1;56(3):292-5 21317587 AIDS Res Ther. 2017 Mar 14;14(1):13 28292305 Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Jun;14(6):527-32 24438820 Int (...) Molecular Diagnostics for AIDS Lymphoma Diagnosis in South Africa and the Potential for Other Low- and Middle-Income Countries 30241211 2019 03 04 2378-9506 4 2018 Sep Journal of global oncology J Glob Oncol Molecular Diagnostics for AIDS Lymphoma Diagnosis in South Africa and the Potential for Other Low- and Middle-Income Countries. 1-6 10.1200/JGO.17.00043 Vogt Samantha L SL Samantha L. Vogt and Richard Ambinder, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD; Moosa
Patient Decision Aids to Engage Adults in Treatment or Screening Decisions. Are patient decision aids (PtDAs) associated with (1) improved decision quality defined as a decision informed by the evidence and a value-based decision; (2) improved decision-making processes defined as feeling informed, defining clear values related to the decision, and active participation in making the decision; and (3) better patient and health system outcomes compared with either usual care or a non-PtDA (...) intervention?Patient decision aids are associated with improved decision quality and decision-making processes without worse patient or health system outcomes.
Does foreign aid crowd out government investments? Evidence from rural health centres in Rwanda Rural healthcare facilities in low-income countries play a major role in providing primary care to rural populations. We examined the link of foreign aid with government investments and medical service provision in rural health centres in Rwanda.Using the District Health System Strengthening Tool, a web-based database built by the Ministry of Health in Rwanda, we constructed two composite indices (...) representing provision of (1) child and maternal care and (2) HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria services in 330 rural health centres between 2009 and 2011. Financing variables in a healthcare centre included received funds from various sources, including foreign donors and government. We used multilevel random-effects model in regression analyses and examined the robustness of results to a range of alternative specification, including scale of dependent variables, estimation methods and timing of aid
Exploring the perception of aid organizationsâ€™ staff about factors affecting management of mass casualty traffic incidents in Iran: a grounded theory study Traffic incidents are of main health issues all around the world and cause countless deaths, heavy casualties, and considerable tangible and intangible damage. In this regard, mass casualty traffic incidents are worthy of special attention as, in addition to all losses and damage, they create challenges in the way of providing health (...) services to the victims.The present study is an attempt to explore the challenges and facilitators in management of mass casualty traffic incidents in Iran.This qualitative grounded theory study was carried out with participation of 14 purposively selected experienced managers, paramedics and staff of aid organizations in different provinces of Iran in 2016. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in order to develop the theory. The transcribed interviews were analyzed through open, axial
Personal Sound Amplification Products vs a Conventional Hearing Aid for Speech Understanding in Noise 28672306 2017 08 22 2018 11 13 1538-3598 318 1 2017 07 04 JAMA JAMA Personal Sound Amplification Products vs a Conventional Hearing Aid for Speech Understanding in Noise. 89-90 10.1001/jama.2017.6905 Reed Nicholas S NS Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. Betz Joshua J Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg (...) States Comparative Study Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural United States JAMA 7501160 0098-7484 AIM IM JAMA. 2017 Nov 14;318(18):1831 29136438 Aged Aged, 80 and over Equipment Design Female Hearing Aids Hearing Loss rehabilitation Humans Male Middle Aged Speech Perception 2017 7 4 6 0 2017 7 4 6 0 2017 8 23 6 0 ppublish 28672306 2635618 10.1001/jama.2017.6905 PMC5817472 Ear Hear. 2012 Jan-Feb;33(1):112-7 21829134 Arch Intern Med. 2012 Feb 13;172(3):292-3
Clinical Calculator for Early Mortality in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: An Analysis of Patients From 28 Clinical Trials in the Aide et Recherche en Cancerologie Digestive Database Purpose Factors contributing to early mortality after initiation of treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer are poorly understood. Materials and Methods Data from 22,654 patients enrolled in 28 randomized phase III trials contained in the ARCAD (Aide et Recherche en Cancérologie Digestive) database were pooled
Addressing varenicline adherence through repackaging in a dose administration aid Ensuring adherence to prescribed smoking cessation medications, such as Champix® (varenicline), is essential during a quit attempt as non-adherence can significantly reduce the likelihood of achieving prolonged smoking abstinence. The use of dose administration aids may improve adherence, though medication stability on repackaging is not guaranteed, due to a lack of available data from manufacturers supporting (...) this practice.To determine the suitability for repackaging varenicline tartrate tablets into a dose administration aid, by assessing its physical and chemical stability after being repackaged and stored at ambient conditions for 6 weeks.Varenicline tartrate (1.0 mg) tablets were repackaged into commercially available Webster-pak® blister compartments and stored for 42 days at ambient conditions characteristic of a Zone IVB climate (30 ± 2°C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity) according to the World Health
The Use of Transdermal Buprenorphine Patches in Aiding in Opioid Withdrawal: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines The Use of Transdermal Buprenorphine Patches in Aiding in Opioid Withdrawal: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need The Use of Transdermal Buprenorphine Patches in Aiding in Opioid Withdrawal: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines The Use of Transdermal Buprenorphine Patches in Aiding in Opioid Withdrawal: Clinical Effectiveness (...) and Guidelines Published on: June 8, 2017 Project Number: RA0911-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drug Report Type: Reference List Result type: Report Question What is the clinical effectiveness regarding the use of buprenorphine patches for aiding in opioid withdrawal prior to starting a patient on buprenorphine/naloxone? What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of buprenorphine patches for aiding in opioid withdrawal prior to starting a patient on buprenorphine/naloxone? Key Message One non
Effect of Combined Patient Decision Aid and Patient Navigation vs Usual Care for Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Vulnerable Patient Population: A Randomized Clinical Trial Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is underused, especially among vulnerable populations. Decision aids and patient navigation are potentially complementary interventions for improving CRC screening rates, but their combined effect on screening completion is unknown.To determine the combined effect of a CRC screening decision (...) aid and patient navigation compared with usual care on CRC screening completion.In this randomized clinical trial, data were collected from January 2014 to March 2016 at 2 community health center practices, 1 in North Carolina and 1 in New Mexico, serving vulnerable populations. Patients ages 50 to 75 years who had average CRC risk, spoke English or Spanish, were not current with recommended CRC screening, and were attending primary care visits were recruited and randomized 1:1 to intervention
Aid effectiveness and programmatic effectiveness: a proposed framework for comparative evaluation of different aid interventions in a particular health system Against a backdrop of changing concepts of aid effectiveness, development effectiveness, health systems strengthening, and increasing emphasis on impact evaluation, this article proposes a theory-driven impact evaluation framework to gauge the effect of aid effectiveness principles on programmatic outcomes of different aid funded programs (...) in the health sector of a particular country.The foundation and step-by-step process of implementing the framework are described.With empirical evidence from the field, the steps involve analysis of context, program designs, implementation mechanisms, outcomes, synthesis, and interpretation of findings through the programs' underlying program theories and interactions with the state context and health system.The framework can be useful for comparatively evaluating different aid interventions both in fragile
;40(7):437-44 25180355 J AcquirImmune Defic Syndr. 2016 Aug 15;72 (5):558-64 27035888 Lancet Glob Health. 2014 May;2(5):e285-92 24818084 Nature. 2015 Dec 3;528(7580):S68-76 26633768 Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2016 Oct;13(5):241-55 27475643 BMJ Glob Health. 2016 Sep 15;1(2):e000010 28588933 (...) UNAIDS 90â€“90â€“90 targets to end the AIDS epidemic by 2020 are not realistic: comment on â€œCan the UNAIDS 90â€“90â€“90 target be achieved? A systematic analysis of national HIV treatment cascadesâ€ 28589026 2018 11 13 2059-7908 2 2 2017 BMJ global health BMJ Glob Health UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets to end the AIDS epidemic by 2020 are not realistic: comment on "Can the UNAIDS 90-90-90 target be achieved? A systematic analysis of national HIV treatment cascades". e000227 10.1136/bmjgh-2016-000227
Foundation and methodologies in computer-aided diagnosis systems for breast cancer detection Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer that affects women all over the world. Early detection and treatment of breast cancer could decline the mortality rate. Some issues such as technical reasons, which related to imaging quality and human error, increase misdiagnosis of breast cancer by radiologists. Computer-aided detection systems (CADs) are developed to overcome these restrictions and have been
) in the large cities than others; in some median and small cities no HIV resources were found. The evidence base that is directly applicable to women over 40 who live with HIV/AIDS in the U.S. is limited. We make observations to inform the prioritization of future research. Final publication URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH AcquiredImmunodeficiencySyndrome; Communicable Diseases; Female; HIV Infections; Humans; Life Language Published English Country of organisation United States (...) Strategies for improving the lives of women aged 40 and above living with HIV/AIDS. Strategies for improving the lives of women aged 40 and above living with HIV/AIDS. Strategies for improving the lives of women aged 40 and above living with HIV/AIDS. Adam GP, Di M, Cu-Uvin S, Halladay C, Smith BT, Trikalinos TA Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made
Dental Students Can Benefit by Starting to Learn Indirect Vision (Mirror) Skills Early in Preclinical Studies with The Aid of a Training Device UTCAT3133, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title Dental Students Can Benefit by Starting to Learn Indirect Vision (Mirror) Skills Early in Preclinical Studies with The Aid of a Training Device Clinical Question In dental students, does use of a training device lead
Assessing and Refining Myocardial Infarction Risk Estimation among Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that is treated with antiretroviral therapy have improved longevity but face an elevated risk of myocardial infarction (MI) due to common MI risk factors and HIV-specific factors. Despite these elevated MI rates, optimal methods to predict MI risks for HIV-infected (...) persons remain unclear.To determine the extent to which existing and de novo estimation tools predict MI in a multicenter HIV cohort with rigorous MI adjudication.We evaluated the performance of standard of care and 2 new data-derived MI risk estimation models in 5 Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems sites across the United States where a multicenter clinical prospective cohort of 19 829 HIV-infected adults received care in inpatient and outpatient settings since 1995