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Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics
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Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.
Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.
Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.
Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.
Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.
A Randomized Trial Comparing Antibiotics with Appendectomy for Appendicitis. Antibiotic therapy has been proposed as an alternative to surgery for the treatment of appendicitis.We conducted a pragmatic, nonblinded, noninferiority, randomized trial comparing antibiotic therapy (10-day course) with appendectomy in patients with appendicitis at 25 U.S. centers. The primary outcome was 30-day health status, as assessed with the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire (scores (...) range from 0 to 1, with higher scores indicating better health status; noninferiority margin, 0.05 points). Secondary outcomes included appendectomy in the antibiotics group and complications through 90 days; analyses were prespecified in subgroups defined according to the presence or absence of an appendicolith.In total, 1552 adults (414 with an appendicolith) underwent randomization; 776 were assigned to receive antibiotics (47% of whom were not hospitalized for the index treatment) and 776
Prophylactic anti-staphylococcal antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. Staphylococcus aureus causes pulmonary infection in young children with cystic fibrosis. Prophylactic antibiotics are prescribed hoping to prevent such infection and lung damage. Antibiotics have adverse effects and long-term use might lead to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is an update of a previously published review.To assess continuous oral antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of Staphylococcus (...) aureus versus no prophylaxis in people with cystic fibrosis, we tested the following hypotheses to investigate whether prophylaxis: 1. improves clinical status, lung function and survival; 2. leads to fewer isolates of Staphylococcus aureus; 3. causes adverse effects (e.g. diarrhoea, skin rash, candidiasis); 4. leads to fewer isolates of other common pathogens from respiratory secretions; 5. leads to the emergence of antibiotic resistance and colonisation of the respiratory tract with Pseudomonas
, antimicrobial resistant pathogens caused more than 2.8 million infections and over 35,000 deaths annually in the United States from 2012 through 2017, according to the 2019 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Antibiotic Resistant Threats Report . The selection of effective antibiotics for the treatment of infections by resistant pathogens is challenging . Although there has been an increase in the availability of novel antibiotics to combat resistant infections in recent years [3 (...) will be disseminated on multiple platforms and updated as new data emerge. Treatment of antimicrobial resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections was chosen as the initial topic for a guidance document. The overarching goal of this guidance document is to assist clinicians – including those with and without infectious diseases expertise – in selecting antibiotic therapy for infections caused by ESBL-E, CRE, and DTR- P. aeruginosa . Future iterations of this document will address other resistant pathogens
FSRH CEU Response to study: Analysis of reports of unintended pregnancies associated with the combined use of non-enzyme inducing antibiotics and hormonal contraceptives 1 FSRH CEU Response to study: Analysis of reports of unintended pregnancies associated with the combined use of non-enzyme inducing antibiotics and hormonal contraceptives 19 August 2020 The BMJ Evidence Based Medicine Journal has published a paper 1 suggesting that antibiotics may lessen the effectiveness of hormonal (...) contraception. The authors used the ‘Yellow Cards’ system where clinicians and patients can report adverse drug side-effects to the UK’s drug and medical devices regulator, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Data between 1963 and July 2018 was analysed and researchers compared the number of unintended pregnancies reported in 74,623 Yellow Cards for antibiotics in general and in 32,872 for enzyme-inducing drugs with those reported in 65,578 other types of drugs in users of oral
Antibiotic therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) affects 4% to 12% of women of reproductive age. The main intervention for acute PID is broad-spectrum antibiotics administered intravenously, intramuscularly or orally. We assessed the optimal treatment regimen for PID. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of antibiotic regimens to treat PID.In January 2020, we searched the Cochrane Sexually Transmitted Infections Review Group's Specialized (...) Register, which included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from 1944 to 2020, located through hand and electronic searching; CENTRAL; MEDLINE; Embase; four other databases; and abstracts in selected publications.We included RCTs comparing antibiotics with placebo or other antibiotics for the treatment of PID in women of reproductive age, either as inpatient or outpatient treatment. We limited our review to a comparison of drugs in current use that are recommended by the 2015 US Centers for Disease
Association of Nonoperative Management Using Antibiotic Therapy vs Laparoscopic Appendectomy With Treatment Success and Disability Days in Children With Uncomplicated Appendicitis. Nonoperative management with antibiotics alone has the potential to treat uncomplicated pediatric appendicitis with fewer disability days than surgery.To determine the success rate of nonoperative management and compare differences in treatment-related disability, satisfaction, health-related quality of life (...) with antibiotics alone (nonoperative group, n = 370) or urgent (≤12 hours of admission) laparoscopic appendectomy (surgery group, n = 698).The 2 primary outcomes assessed at 1 year were disability days, defined as the total number of days the child was not able to participate in all of his/her normal activities secondary to appendicitis-related care (expected difference, 5 days), and success rate of nonoperative management, defined as the proportion of patients initially managed nonoperatively who did
Perioperative antibiotics for preventing post-surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients. Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk for infections due to the complexity of surgical procedures combined with the impact of immunosuppression. No consensus exists on the role of antibiotics for surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients.To assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic antimicrobial agents for preventing surgical site infections in solid (...) antibiotics in preventing surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients at any time point after transplantation.Two authors independently determined study eligibility, assessed quality, and extracted data. Primary outcomes were surgical site infections and antimicrobial resistance. Other outcomes included urinary tract infections, pneumonias and septicaemia, death (any cause), graft loss, graft rejection, graft function, adverse reactions to antimicrobial agents, and outcomes identified
Antibiotic adjuvant therapy for pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis is a multi-system disease characterised by the production of thick secretions causing recurrent pulmonary infection, often with unusual bacteria. This leads to lung destruction and eventually death through respiratory failure. There are no antibiotics in development that exert a new mode of action and many of the current antibiotics are ineffective in eradicating the bacteria once chronic infection (...) is established. Antibiotic adjuvants - therapies that act by rendering the organism more susceptible to attack by antibiotics or the host immune system, by rendering it less virulent or killing it by other means, would be a significant therapeutic advance. This is an update of a previously published review.To determine if antibiotic adjuvants improve clinical and microbiological outcome of pulmonary infection in people with cystic fibrosis.We searched the Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register which is compiled
Effect of Probiotic Use on Antibiotic Administration Among Care Home Residents: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Probiotics are frequently used by residents in care homes (residential homes or nursing homes that provide residents with 24-hour support for personal care or nursing care), although the evidence on whether probiotics prevent infections and reduce antibiotic use in these settings is limited.To determine whether a daily oral probiotic combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (...) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB-12 compared with placebo reduces antibiotic administration in care home residents.Placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of 310 care home residents, aged 65 years and older, recruited from 23 care homes in the United Kingdom between December 2016 and May 2018, with last follow-up on October 31, 2018.Study participants were randomized to receive a daily capsule containing a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp
for ASPs by intensivists ( – ), the philosophical approaches and priorities of critical care practitioners and ASPs can differ ( ). Although all involved desire the best patient outcomes, the potentially competing goals of adequate empirical antimicrobial therapy and antibiotic stewardship sometimes create tension. If stewardship efforts are to succeed, this conflict must be addressed. The goal of most critical care practitioners is rapid provision of the appropriate initial therapy. ASPs must work (...) . Tamma PD , Avdic E , Li DX , Dzintars K , Cosgrove SE . Association of adverse events with antibiotic use in hospitalized patients . JAMA Intern Med 2017 ;177: 1308 – 1315 . , , 31 . Hranjec T , Rosenberger LH , Swenson B , Metzger R , Flohr TR , Politano AD , et al . Aggressive versus conservative initiation of antimicrobial treatment in critically ill surgical patients with suspected intensive-care-unit-acquired infection: a quasi-experimental, before and after observational cohort study . Lancet
of nanotechnology. 3 Silver was known for its antibacterial effect and silver-based compounds have been used in many antimicrobial applications. 4,5 By converting bulk silver to nanosized silver, its effectiveness for controlling bacteria and viruses was increased multifold. 2 Due to their bactericidal properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are the most frequently applied nanomaterials, attracting much interest and has the highest degree of commercialisation. 5,6,7 The unique property of nanosilver is mainly (...) Antimicrobial Nano-Silver Sanitizer Spray To provide brief information on the safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Antimicrobial Nano-Silver Sanitizer Spray based on request from the Director General of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia following proposal by a company to provide and distribute 500,000 Antimicrobial Nano-Silver Sanitizer Spray to the public, beginning with Ministry of Health Malaysia hospitals and clinics to prevent COVID-19 transmission. Nanoparticles include
with cystic fibrosis leading to more a rapid decline in lung function and even death in certain circumstances. Although there are guidelines for the antimicrobial treatment of nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease, these recommendations are not specific for people with cystic fibrosis and it is not clear which antibiotic regimen may be the most effective in the treatment of these individuals. This is an update of a previous review.The objective of our review was to compare antibiotic treatment (...) Antibiotic treatment for nontuberculous mycobacteria lung infection in people with cystic fibrosis. Nontuberculous mycobacteria are mycobacteria, other than those in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and are commonly found in the environment. Nontuberculous mycobacteria species (most commonly Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium abscessus) are isolated from the respiratory tract of approximately 5% to 40% of individuals with cystic fibrosis; they can cause lung disease in people