Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

21. Early Childhood Antibiotic Treatment for Otitis Media and Other Respiratory Tract Infections Is Associated With Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Nationwide Register-Based Study With Sibling Analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Early Childhood Antibiotic Treatment for Otitis Media and Other Respiratory Tract Infections Is Associated With Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Nationwide Register-Based Study With Sibling Analysis Early Childhood Antibiotic Treatment for Otitis Media and Other Respiratory Tract Infections Is Associated With Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Nationwide Register-Based Study With Sibling Analysis - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set (...) : Send at most: Send even when there aren't any new results Optional text in email: Save Cancel Create a file for external citation management software Create file Cancel Actions Cite Share Permalink Copy Page navigation Diabetes Care Actions . 2020 Mar 4;dc191162. doi: 10.2337/dc19-1162. Online ahead of print. Early Childhood Antibiotic Treatment for Otitis Media and Other Respiratory Tract Infections Is Associated With Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Nationwide Register-Based Study With Sibling Analysis

2020 EvidenceUpdates

22. Impetigo: antimicrobial prescribing

T erms used in the guideline 11 Recommendation for research 13 1 Antiseptics compared with antibiotics for impetigo 13 Rationales 14 Advice to reduce the spread of impetigo 14 Initial treatment 14 Reassessment and further treatment 16 Referral and seeking specialist advice 17 Choice of antimicrobial 18 Context 21 Summary of the evidence 22 Antimicrobials 22 Choice of antibiotics 23 Course length 25 Route of administration 25 Other considerations 27 Medicines safety 27 Medicines adherence 27 (...) Resource implications 27 Impetigo: antimicrobial prescribing (NG153) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 28Overview Overview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for adults, young people and children aged 72 hours and over with impetigo. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. For managing other skin and soft tissue infections, see our web pages

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

23. Are Postoperative Intravenous Antibiotics Indicated After Laparoscopic Appendicectomy for Simple Appendicitis? A Prospective Double-blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

Are Postoperative Intravenous Antibiotics Indicated After Laparoscopic Appendicectomy for Simple Appendicitis? A Prospective Double-blinded Randomized Controlled Trial Are Postoperative Intravenous Antibiotics Indicated After Laparoscopic Appendicectomy for Simple Appendicitis? A Prospective Double-blinded Randomized Controlled Trial - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Welcome to the new PubMed. For legacy (...) to an existing collection Name your collection: Name must be less than 100 characters Choose a collection: Unable to load your collection due to an error Add Cancel Add to My Bibliography My Bibliography Unable to load your delegates due to an error Add Cancel Actions Cite Share Permalink Copy Page navigation Ann Surg Actions 2019 Dec 9 [Online ahead of print] Are Postoperative Intravenous Antibiotics Indicated After Laparoscopic Appendicectomy for Simple Appendicitis? A Prospective Double-blinded Randomized

2020 EvidenceUpdates

24. A multifaceted intervention to reduce antimicrobial prescribing in care homes: a non-randomised feasibility study and process evaluation Full Text available with Trip Pro

A multifaceted intervention to reduce antimicrobial prescribing in care homes: a non-randomised feasibility study and process evaluation A multifaceted intervention to reduce antimicrobial prescribing in care homes: a non-randomised feasibility study and process evaluation Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation

2020 NIHR HTA programme

25. Associations between macrolide antibiotics prescribing during pregnancy and adverse child outcomes in the UK: population based cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Associations between macrolide antibiotics prescribing during pregnancy and adverse child outcomes in the UK: population based cohort study. To assess the association between macrolide antibiotics prescribing during pregnancy and major malformations, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorder in children.Population based cohort study.The UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.The study cohort included 104 605 children born from 1990 to 2016 (...) , 1.14 to 2.19, mainly hypospadias). Erythromycin in the first trimester was associated with an increased risk of any major malformation (27.39 v 17.65 per 1000, 1.50, 1.13 to 1.99). No statistically significant associations were found for other system specific malformations or for neurodevelopmental disorders. Findings were robust to sensitivity analyses.Prescribing macrolide antibiotics during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of any major malformation

2020 BMJ

26. Leg ulcer infection: antimicrobial prescribing

26 Medicines safety 26 Medicines adherence 27 Resource implications 27 Leg ulcer infection: antimicrobial prescribing (NG152) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 28Overview Overview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for adults with leg ulcer infection. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. See a 2-page visual summary (...) antibiotic use. 1.1.4 Give oral antibiotics if the person can take oral medicines, and the severity of their condition does not require intravenous antibiotics. 1.1.5 If intravenous antibiotics are given, review by 48 hours and consider switching to oral antibiotics if possible. T o find out why the committee made the recommendations on treatment for adults with an infected leg ulcer, see the rationales. Leg ulcer infection: antimicrobial prescribing (NG152) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

27. Antibiotic Use for the Urgent Management of Dental Pain and Intra-oral Swelling Clinical Practice Guideline Full Text available with Trip Pro

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Telebriefing on today's drug-resistant health threats. ( Available at: ) . , x 16 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Joint Statement on Importance of Outpatient Antibiotics Stewardship From 12 National Health Organizations. ( Available at: ) . , x 17 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/antimicrobial resistance (AR/AMR): the AMR challenge. ( Available at: ) . , x 18 White House Office of the Press Secretary. Fact sheet: over 150 (...) Antibiotic Use for the Urgent Management of Dental Pain and Intra-oral Swelling Clinical Practice Guideline Evidence-based clinical practice guideline on antibiotic use for the urgent management of pulpal- and periapical-related dental pain and intraoral swelling - The Journal of the American Dental Association Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Access provided by Volume 150, Issue 11, Pages 906–921.e12 Evidence-based clinical practice guideline

2020 American Dental Association Guidelines

28. Prophylaxis of Wound Infections-antibiotics in Renal Donation (POWAR): A UK Multicentre Double blind Placebo Controlled Randomised Trial (Abstract)

Prophylaxis of Wound Infections-antibiotics in Renal Donation (POWAR): A UK Multicentre Double blind Placebo Controlled Randomised Trial Postoperative infection after hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN) confers significant morbidity to a healthy patient group. Current UK guidelines cite a lack of evidence for routine antibiotic prophylaxis. This trial assessed if a single preoperative antibiotic dose could reduce post HALDN infections.Eligible donors were randomly and blindly (...) allocated to preoperative single-dose intravenous co-amoxiclav or saline. The primary composite endpoint was clinical evidence of any postoperative infection at 30 days, including surgical site infection (SSI), urinary tract infection (UTI), and lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI).In all, 293 participants underwent HALDN (148 antibiotic arm and 145 placebo arm). Among them, 99% (291/293) completed follow-up. The total infection rate was 40.7% (59/145) in the placebo group and 23% (34 of 148

2020 EvidenceUpdates

29. Clinicians prescribe antibiotics for childhood respiratory tract infection based on assessment, rather than parental expectation. (Abstract)

Clinicians prescribe antibiotics for childhood respiratory tract infection based on assessment, rather than parental expectation. The studyCabral C, Horwood J, Symonds J, et al. Understanding the influence of parent-clinician communication on antibiotic prescribing for children with respiratory tract infections in primary care: a qualitative observational study using a conversation analysis approach. BMC Fam Pract 2019;20:102.This project was funded by the NIHR School for Primary Care Research (...) Programme (project number SPCR204).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to: https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000829/gps-assessment-not-parental-expectation-drives-antibiotic-prescribing.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

2020 BMJ

30. Antimicrobial prescribing: ceftolozane with tazobactam for treating hospital-acquired pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia

for Antimicrobial Utilisation and Resistance (ESPAUR) Report 2018 to 2019 states that monitoring the use of new antibiotics and detecting emerging resistance to these medicines is a crucial component of antimicrobial usage surveillance to inform antimicrobial stewardship activities and preserve treatment effectiveness. Although susceptibility testing for ceftolozane with tazobactam is currently uncommon and selective (following resistance to first- and second-line antibiotics), resistance has nonetheless been (...) ) is Antimicrobial prescribing: ceftolozane with tazobactam for treating hospital-acquired pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (ES22) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 5 of 6£402.18 (BNF, November 2019). The acquisition costs (excluding VAT) of many other IV antibiotics that are used for HAP and VAP (caused or suspected to be caused by Gram-negative pathogens) are lower than that of ceftolozane

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

31. Covid-19: Antimicrobial Copper Oxide–infused Textiles for Reducing Healthcare-associated Infection Risk

copper oxide–infused textiles. Clinical Literature We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, the Cochrane Library, and selected web-based resources for documents relevant to this topic and published between January 1, 2006, and February 5, 2019. Our search strategies included the following keywords: copper; fabric; textiles; bedding; clothing; antimicrobial; antibacterial; infection control. Please see the Selected References and Resources section for detailed search strategies. We included any (...) , labor, and laundry, expenses during period B.” “The use of biocidal copper oxide impregnated textiles in a long-term care ward may significantly reduce HAI, fever, antibiotic consumption, and related treatment costs.” CLINICAL EVIDENCE ASSESSMENT Antimicrobial Copper Oxide–infused Textiles for Reducing Healthcare-associated Infection Risk © February 2019 ECRI | 6 Selected References and Resources References Reviewed (PubMed and EMBASE search dates were January 1, 2006, through February 5, 2019) 1

2020 Covid-19 Ad hoc papers

32. COVID-19: Antibiotic Management in Ambulatory Patients

April 3 The CDC offers no guidance specific to the use of antibiotics in COVID+ patients in the outpatient setting. Professional society guidance on antibiotic indications in COVID+ patients or patients under investigation (PUI) Source Recommendations IDSA April 13 The IDSA offers no guidance specific to the use of antibiotics in COVID+ patients in the outpatient setting. ASP April 2 For patients in an ambulatory setting, antibacterial therapy (including azithromycin) is not routinely recommended (...) COVID-19: Antibiotic Management in Ambulatory Patients COVID-19: ANTIBIOTIC MANAGEMENT IN AMBULATORY PATIENTS A Rapid Guidance Summary from the Penn Medicine Center for Evidence-based Practice Last updated April 21, 2020 1:00 pm. Sources rechecked April 19 unless otherwise noted. Key questions answered in this summary • What are indications for antibiotic use in COVID-19 patients being cared for in the ambulatory setting? • What are best practices related to antibiotic management

2020 Centre for Evidence-Based Practice, Penn Medicine

33. What is the evidence for use of macrolide antibiotics for treatment of COVID-19?

that has complicated COVID-19, we recognise that clinicians may wish to prescribe macrolide antibiotics, in line with their local/national antimicrobial guidelines. End. Disclaimer : This article has not been peer-reviewed; it should not replace individual clinical judgement and the sources cited should be checked. The views expressed in this commentary represent the views of the authors and not necessarily those of the host institution, the NHS, the NIHR, or the Department of Health and Social Care (...) What is the evidence for use of macrolide antibiotics for treatment of COVID-19? What is the evidence for use of macrolide antibiotics for treatment of COVID-19? - CEBM CEBM The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine develops, promotes and disseminates better evidence for healthcare. Navigate this website What is the evidence for use of macrolide antibiotics for treatment of COVID-19? April 28, 2020 Kome Gbinigie and Kerstin Frie On behalf of the Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service Team Centre

2020 Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service

34. C reactive protein testing in general practice safely reduces antibiotic use for flare-ups of COPD. (Abstract)

C reactive protein testing in general practice safely reduces antibiotic use for flare-ups of COPD. The studyButler CC, Gillespie D, White P, et al. C-reactive protein testing to guide antibiotic prescribing for COPD exacerbations. N Engl J Med 2019;381:111-20.This research was funded by the NIHR Technology Assessment Programme (project number 12/33/12). The testing machines used in the study were loaned to researchers by the manufacturer, who also provided training on their use (...) . The manufacturer had no other role in any part of the trial.To read the full NIHR Signal, go to https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000820/crp-testing-safely-reduces-antibiotic-use-for-copd-flare-ups.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

2019 BMJ

35. Antibiotic prescribing without documented indication in ambulatory care clinics: national cross sectional study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic prescribing without documented indication in ambulatory care clinics: national cross sectional study. To identify the frequency with which antibiotics are prescribed in the absence of a documented indication in the ambulatory care setting, to quantify the potential effect on assessments of appropriateness of antibiotics, and to understand patient, provider, and visit level characteristics associated with antibiotic prescribing without a documented indication.Cross sectional study (...) .2015 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.28 332 sample visits representing 990.9 million ambulatory care visits nationwide.Overall antibiotic prescribing and whether each antibiotic prescription was accompanied by appropriate, inappropriate, or no documented indication as identified through ICD-9-CM (international classification of diseases, 9th revision, clinical modification) codes. Survey weighted multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate potential risk factors for receipt

2019 BMJ

36. Antimicrobial prescribing: meropenem with vaborbactam

/50) of people receiving Antimicrobial prescribing: meropenem with vaborbactam (ES21) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 5 of 7meropenem with vaborbactam, and 44.0% (11/25) of people receiving best available antibiotic treatment. Adverse events leading to study treatment discontinuation occurred in 10.0% (5/50) and 12.0% (3/25) of people respectively. Statistical analyses were not reported for safety (...) for injection (Drug T ariff, October 2019). The cost of 1 day's treatment with 2 g (2 vials) every 8 hours is £106.68. The manufacturer of meropenem with vaborbactam (Menarini) anticipates that usage will be low, following the principles of good antimicrobial stewardship, and will be under the guidance of a microbiologist. A wide range of antibiotics, alone or in combination, are used for treating cUTI, acute pyelonephritis, cIAI, HAP and VAP , and regimens may be changed based on response to treatment

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

37. Incidence of Bloodstream Infections, Length of Hospital Stay, and Survival in Patients With Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection Treated With Fecal Microbiota Transplantation or Antibiotics: A Prospective Cohort Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Incidence of Bloodstream Infections, Length of Hospital Stay, and Survival in Patients With Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection Treated With Fecal Microbiota Transplantation or Antibiotics: A Prospective Cohort Study. Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a risk factor for bloodstream infection (BSI). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is more effective than antibiotics in treating recurrent CDI, but its efficacy in preventing CDI-related BSI is uncertain.To assess incidence (...) of primary BSI in patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT versus antibiotics.Prospective cohort study. Patients treated with FMT and those treated with antibiotics were matched on propensity score.Single academic medical center.290 inpatients with recurrent CDI (57 patients per treatment in matched cohort).FMT or antibiotics.The primary outcome was primary BSI within 90 days. Secondary outcomes were length of hospitalization and overall survival (OS) at 90 days.Of the 290 patients, 109 were treated

2019 Annals of Internal Medicine

38. Antimicrobial central venous catheters do not reduce infections in pre-term babies. (Abstract)

Antimicrobial central venous catheters do not reduce infections in pre-term babies. The studyGilbert R, Brown M, Rainford N et al. Antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters for prevention of neonatal bloodstream infection (PREVAIL): an open-label, parallel-group, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2019;3:381-90.The study was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme (project number 12/167/02).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to https (...) ://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000782/antimicrobial-central-venous-catheters-for-pre-term-babies-do-not-reduce-infections.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

2019 BMJ