Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

101. The endogenous antimicrobial cathelicidin LL37 induces platelet activation and augments thrombus formation Full Text available with Trip Pro

The endogenous antimicrobial cathelicidin LL37 induces platelet activation and augments thrombus formation Platelet-associated complications including thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and hemorrhage are commonly observed during various inflammatory diseases such as sepsis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis. Despite the reported evidence on numerous mechanisms/molecules that may contribute to the dysfunction of platelets, the primary mechanisms that underpin platelet-associated (...) complications during inflammatory diseases are not fully established. Here, we report the discovery of formyl peptide receptor 2, FPR2/ALX, in platelets and its primary role in the development of platelet-associated complications via ligation with its ligand, LL37. LL37 acts as a powerful endogenous antimicrobial peptide, but it also regulates innate immune responses. We demonstrate the impact of LL37 in the modulation of platelet reactivity, hemostasis, and thrombosis. LL37 activates a range of platelet

2018 Blood advances

102. A review of antibiotic prophylaxis for traveler’s diarrhea: past to present Full Text available with Trip Pro

A review of antibiotic prophylaxis for traveler’s diarrhea: past to present As there is rapid increase in international travel to tropical and subtropical countries, there will likely be more people exposed to diarrheal pathogens in these moderate to high risk areas and subsequent increased concern for traveler's diarrhea. The disease may appear as a mild clinical syndrome, yet a more debilitating presentation can lead to itinerary changes and hospitalization. As bacterial etiologies (...) are the most common causative agents of TD, the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent TD has been reported among travelers for several years. The most common type of antibiotic used for TD has changed over 50 years, depending on many influencing factors. The use of antibiotic prophylaxis for TD prevention in travelers is still controversial, mainly because of difficulties balancing the risks and benefits. Many factors, such as emerging drug resistance, side effects, cost and risk behavior need

2018 Tropical diseases, travel medicine and vaccines

103. Hospital-based antibiotic use in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hospital-based antibiotic use in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex Treatment guidelines exist for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection, although studies suggest poor concordance in clinician practice. Using a national database including hospital encounters of laboratory-confirmed MAC patients, we sought to characterise US treatment practices. We assessed patients in the Premier Healthcare Database from 2009 to 2013 with two or more MAC-positive cultures or one MAC (...) % resistance-associated therapy. Patients were more likely to receive guidelines-based therapy if they had multiple hospital encounters (aRR 1.5), codes for PNTM (aRR 5.7) or tuberculosis (aRR 4.5) or radiological procedures (aRR 10.9); multiple hospital encounters (aRR 0.8) or a tuberculosis code (aRR 0.1) were less likely to be associated with receiving resistance-promoting regimens. In hospital-based MAC patients, half received antibiotics active against MAC, a low proportion received therapy based

2018 ERJ open research

104. Is Antibiotic Therapy Helpful for Preventing Infection After Acute Stroke? (SRS therapy)

Is Antibiotic Therapy Helpful for Preventing Infection After Acute Stroke? (SRS therapy) Is Antibiotic Therapy Helpful for Preventing Infection After Acute Stroke? TAKE-HOME MESSAGE In patients with acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, prophylactic antibiotics reduce the overall infection rate, but do not reduce the risk of pneumonia, death or dependency. EBEM Commentators Latha Ganti, MD, MBA Department of Clinical Sciences University of Central Florida College of Medicine Orlando, FL Bryan (...) Sleigh, MD Department of Emergency Medicine Mercer University School of Medicine Macon, GA Jestin N. Carlson, MD, MS, and Alan Jones, MD, serve as editors of the SRS series. Editor’s Note: This is a clinical synopsis, a regular feature of the Annals’ Systematic Review Snapshot (SRS) series. The source for this systematic review snapshot is: Vermeij JD, Westendorp WF, Dippel DWJ, et al. Antibiotic therapy for preventing infections in people with acute stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;1

2018 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

105. Systemic Antibiotics for the Treatment of Skin and Soft Tissue Abscesses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Systemic Antibiotics for the Treatment of Skin and Soft Tissue Abscesses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Systemic Antibiotics for the Treatment of Skin and Soft Tissue Abscesses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Michael Gottlieb, MD*; Joshua M. DeMott, PharmD, MSc; Marilyn Hallock, MD, MS; Gary D. Peksa, PharmD *Corresponding Author. E-mail: michaelgottliebmd@gmail.com, Twitter: @MGottliebMD. Study objective: The addition of antibiotics to standard incision and drainage (...) is controversial, with earlier studies demonstrating no signi?cant bene?t. However, 2 large, multicenter trials have recently been published that have challenged the previous literature. The goal of this review was to determine whether systemic antibiotics for abscesses after incision and drainage improve cure rates. Methods: PubMed, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials

2018 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

106. Urinary tract infection (lower): antimicrobial prescribing

of 35Contents Contents Overview 4 Who is it for? 4 Recommendations 5 1.1 Managing lower urinary tract infection 5 1.2 Managing asymptomatic bacteriuria 8 1.3 Self-care 9 1.4 Choice of antibiotic 9 Summary of the evidence 15 Self-care 15 Antibiotics 16 Choice of antibiotic 23 Antibiotic course length 29 Other considerations 34 Medicines adherence 34 Resource implications 34 Update information 35 Urinary tract infection (lower): antimicrobial prescribing (NG109) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject (...) to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 35This guideline should be read in conjunction with CG54, NG111 and NG112. Ov Overview erview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for lower urinary tract infection (also called cystitis) in children, young people and adults who do not have a catheter. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. See a 3-page visual summary of the recommendations, including

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

107. Prostatitis (acute): antimicrobial prescribing

is it for? 4 Recommendations 5 1.1 Managing acute prostatitis 5 1.2 Self-care 6 1.3 Choice of antibiotic 7 Summary of the evidence 9 Self-care 9 Antibiotics 9 Choice of antibiotic 11 Antibiotic course length 14 Antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing infective complications, including acute prostatitis, after biopsy 16 Other considerations 17 Medicines adherence 17 Resource implications 17 Prostatitis (acute): antimicrobial prescribing (NG110) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (...) (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 17Ov Overview erview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for acute prostatitis. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. See a 2-page visual summary of the recommendations, including a table to support prescribing decisions. NICE has also produced a guideline on antimicrobial stewardship: systems and processes for effective antimicrobial medicine use. Who is it for? Health

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

108. Pyelonephritis (acute): antimicrobial prescribing

is it for? 4 Recommendations 5 1.1 Managing acute pyelonephritis 5 1.2 Self-care 7 1.3 Choice of antibiotic 7 Summary of the evidence 13 Self-care 13 Antibiotics 13 Choice of antibiotic 14 Antibiotic course length 21 Antibiotic dose frequency 23 Antibiotic route of administration 23 Other considerations 25 Medicines adherence 25 Resource implications 25 Pyelonephritis (acute): antimicrobial prescribing (NG111) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms (...) -and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 26This guideline should be read in conjunction with NG109, NG112 and CG54. Ov Overview erview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for acute pyelonephritis (upper urinary tract infection) in children, young people and adults who do not have a catheter. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. See a 3-page visual summary of the recommendations, including a table to support prescribing decisions. NICE has also

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

109. Urinary tract infection (recurrent): antimicrobial prescribing

a catheter. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. See a 2-page visual summary of the recommendations, including a table to support prescribing decisions. NICE has also produced a guideline on antimicrobial stewardship: systems and processes for effective antimicrobial medicine use. Who is it for? Health professionals People with recurrent urinary tract infection, their families and carers Urinary tract infection (recurrent): antimicrobial prescribing (NG112) © NICE 2019 (...) and over people with recurrent upper UTI people with recurrent lower UTI when the underlying cause is unknown pregnant women children and young people under 16 years in line with the NICE guideline on urinary tract infection in under 16s people with suspected cancer in line with the NICE guideline on suspected cancer: recognition and referral. See the evidence and committee discussion on antibiotic prophylaxis. Urinary tract infection (recurrent): antimicrobial prescribing (NG112) © NICE 2019. All

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

110. Decontamination Strategies and Bloodstream Infections With Antibiotic-Resistant Microorganisms in Ventilated Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Decontamination Strategies and Bloodstream Infections With Antibiotic-Resistant Microorganisms in Ventilated Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial. The effects of chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash, selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD), and selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) on patient outcomes in ICUs with moderate to high levels of antibiotic resistance are unknown.To determine associations between CHX 2%, SOD, and SDD and the occurrence of ICU-acquired bloodstream infections (...) with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDRGNB) and 28-day mortality in ICUs with moderate to high levels of antibiotic resistance.Randomized trial conducted from December 1, 2013, to May 31, 2017, in 13 European ICUs where at least 5% of bloodstream infections are caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Patients with anticipated mechanical ventilation of more than 24 hours were eligible. The final date of follow-up was September 20, 2017.Standard care was daily CHX 2

2018 JAMA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

111. Isolation and genomic characterization of six endophytic bacteria isolated from Saccharum sp (sugarcane): Insights into antibiotic, secondary metabolite and quorum sensing metabolism Full Text available with Trip Pro

Isolation and genomic characterization of six endophytic bacteria isolated from Saccharum sp (sugarcane): Insights into antibiotic, secondary metabolite and quorum sensing metabolism Six endophytic bacteria were isolated from Saccharum sp (sugarcane) grown in the parish of Westmoreland on the island of Jamaica located in the West Indies. Whole genome sequence and annotation of the six bacteria show that three were from the genus Pseudomonas and the other three were from the genera Pantoea (...) , Pseudocitrobacter, and Enterobacter. A scan of each genome using the antibiotics and secondary metabolite analysis shell (antiSMASH4.0) webserver showed evidence that the bacteria were able to produce a variety of secondary metabolites. In addition, we were able to show that one of the organisms, Enterobacter sp RIT418 produces N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), which is indicative of cell-cell communication via quorum sensing (QS).

2018 Journal of genomics

112. Antimicrobial Prophylaxis for Adult Patients with Cancer-Related Immunosuppression

adverse effects, as well as concerns with antimicrobial resistance, cost considerations, and the physiologic importance to the host of maintaining equilibrium in the diversity and density of the host microbiome, the decision to administer prophylaxis requires balancing benefits and harms. The previous version of this guideline recommended antibacterial and antifungal prophylaxis for higher-risk patients and that there was not a high enough baseline risk of FN and infection-related mortality in lower (...) contained within this guideline can be found in the Bottom Line box. GUIDELINE QUESTIONS Section: This clinical practice guideline addresses the following clinical questions: Does antibacterial prophylaxis with a fluoroquinolone, compared with placebo, no intervention, or another class of antibiotic reduce the incidence of and mortality related to FN? Does antifungal (antiyeast or antimold) prophylaxis with an oral triazole or parenteral echinocandin, compared with no prophylaxis or another treatment

2018 American Society of Clinical Oncology Guidelines

113. Five-Year Follow-up of Antibiotic Therapy for Uncomplicated Acute Appendicitis in the APPAC Randomized Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Five-Year Follow-up of Antibiotic Therapy for Uncomplicated Acute Appendicitis in the APPAC Randomized Clinical Trial. Short-term results support antibiotics as an alternative to surgery for treating uncomplicated acute appendicitis, but long-term outcomes are not known.To determine the late recurrence rate of appendicitis after antibiotic therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis.Five-year observational follow-up of patients in the Appendicitis Acuta (APPAC) multicenter (...) randomized clinical trial comparing appendectomy with antibiotic therapy, in which 530 patients aged 18 to 60 years with computed tomography-confirmed uncomplicated acute appendicitis were randomized to undergo an appendectomy (n = 273) or receive antibiotic therapy (n = 257). The initial trial was conducted from November 2009 to June 2012 in Finland; last follow-up was September 6, 2017. This current analysis focused on assessing the 5-year outcomes for the group of patients treated with antibiotics

2018 JAMA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

114. Bronchoscopy-guided antimicrobial therapy for cystic fibrosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bronchoscopy-guided antimicrobial therapy for cystic fibrosis. Early diagnosis and treatment of lower respiratory tract infections are the mainstay of management of lung disease in cystic fibrosis. When sputum samples are unavailable, treatment relies mainly on cultures from oropharyngeal specimens; however, there are concerns regarding the sensitivity of these to identify lower respiratory organisms.Bronchoscopy and related procedures (including bronchoalveolar lavage) though invasive, allow (...) the collection of lower respiratory specimens from non-sputum producers. Cultures of bronchoscopic specimens provide a higher yield of organisms compared to those from oropharyngeal specimens. Regular use of bronchoscopy and related procedures may help in a more accurate diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections and guide the selection of antimicrobials, which may lead to clinical benefits.This is an update of a previous review.To evaluate the use of bronchoscopy-guided antimicrobial therapy

2018 Cochrane

115. Sensitivity and specificity of using trial-of-antibiotics versus sputum mycobacteriology for diagnosis of tuberculosis: protocol for a systematic literature review. Full Text available with Trip Pro

those with PTB will not-has minimal evidence base for such a widely used intervention. Numerous potential causes of misclassification include bacterial super-infection of active PTB, placebo effect, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The main aim of this systematic review is to collate available evidence on the performance of trial-of-antibiotics as a diagnostic test and to explore the timing, interpretation, and decision-making process.We will search MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health using (...) Sensitivity and specificity of using trial-of-antibiotics versus sputum mycobacteriology for diagnosis of tuberculosis: protocol for a systematic literature review. Suboptimal diagnostics for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) drives use of 'trial-of-antibiotics (non-tuberculosis)' in an attempt to distinguish PTB patients from those with bacterial lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The underlying assumption-that patients with LRTI will report 'response' to broad-spectrum antibiotics, while

2018 Systematic Reviews

116. Resolution of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli keratitis with a PROSE device for enhanced targeted antibiotic delivery Full Text available with Trip Pro

Resolution of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli keratitis with a PROSE device for enhanced targeted antibiotic delivery To report the resolution of a fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli keratitis with use of a prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) device for enhanced targeted delivery of moxifloxiacin.A 62-year-old female presented with a 3-day history of pain, photophobia, and declining vision in left eye. The patient had a 2-year history of binocular (...) therapy. Frequent dosing to the PROSE reservoir is likely to increase fluoroquinolone bioavailability and may represent a valuable approach to overcome antibiotic resistance.

2018 American journal of ophthalmology case reports

117. Short-course versus long-course therapy of the same antibiotic for community-acquired pneumonia in adolescent and adult outpatients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Short-course versus long-course therapy of the same antibiotic for community-acquired pneumonia in adolescent and adult outpatients. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a lung infection that can be acquired during day-to-day activities in the community (not while receiving care in a hospital). Community-acquired pneumonia poses a significant public health burden in terms of mortality, morbidity, and costs. Shorter antibiotic courses for CAP may limit treatment costs and adverse effects (...) , but the optimal duration of antibiotic treatment is uncertain.To evaluate the efficacy and safety of short-course versus longer-course treatment with the same antibiotic at the same daily dosage for CAP in non-hospitalised adolescents and adults (outpatients). We planned to investigate non-inferiority of short-course versus longer-term course treatment for efficacy outcomes, and superiority of short-course treatment for safety outcomes.We searched CENTRAL, which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory

2018 Cochrane

118. Predicting Failure in Early Acute Prosthetic Joint Infection Treated With Debridement, Antibiotics, and Implant Retention: External Validation of the KLIC Score (Abstract)

Predicting Failure in Early Acute Prosthetic Joint Infection Treated With Debridement, Antibiotics, and Implant Retention: External Validation of the KLIC Score Debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) is a widely used treatment modality for early acute prosthetic joint infection (PJI). A preoperative risk score was previously designed for predicting DAIR failure, consisting of chronic renal failure (K), liver cirrhosis (L), index surgery (I), cemented prosthesis (C), and C (...) -reactive protein >115 mg/L (KLIC). The aim of this study was to validate the KLIC score in an external cohort.We retrospectively evaluated patients with early acute PJI treated with DAIR between 2006 and 2016 in 3 Dutch hospitals. Early acute PJI was defined as <21 days of symptoms and DAIR performed within 90 days after index surgery. Failure was defined as the need for (1) second DAIR, (2) implant removal, (3) suppressive antimicrobial treatment, or (4) infection-related death within 60 days after

2018 EvidenceUpdates

119. Partial Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotic Treatment of Endocarditis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Partial Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotic Treatment of Endocarditis. Patients with infective endocarditis on the left side of the heart are typically treated with intravenous antibiotic agents for up to 6 weeks. Whether a shift from intravenous to oral antibiotics once the patient is in stable condition would result in efficacy and safety similar to those with continued intravenous treatment is unknown.In a randomized, noninferiority, multicenter trial, we assigned 400 adults in stable (...) condition who had endocarditis on the left side of the heart caused by streptococcus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, or coagulase-negative staphylococci and who were being treated with intravenous antibiotics to continue intravenous treatment (199 patients) or to switch to oral antibiotic treatment (201 patients). In all patients, antibiotic treatment was administered intravenously for at least 10 days. If feasible, patients in the orally treated group were discharged to outpatient

2018 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

120. Straw Wine Melanoidins as Potential Multifunctional Agents: Insight into Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme Inhibition Effects Full Text available with Trip Pro

Straw Wine Melanoidins as Potential Multifunctional Agents: Insight into Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme Inhibition Effects Numerous studies provide robust evidence for a protective effect of red wine against many diseases. This bioactivity has been mainly associated with phenolic fractions of wines. However, the health effects of melanoidins in red sweet wines has been ignored. The goal of the present work was to unravel the antioxidant, antimicrobial (...) , and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties of straw sweet wine melanoidins. Results demonstrated that melanoidins have a potential antioxidant activity, determined by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The antimicrobial activity of melanoidins was also tested against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Escherichia coli. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of isolated melanoidins against three bacterial strains

2018 Biomedicines