Latest & greatest articles for inequality

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on inequality and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Top results for inequality

1. Mapping geographical inequalities in childhood diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000-17: analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. (Full text)

Mapping geographical inequalities in childhood diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000-17: analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Across low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), one in ten deaths in children younger than 5 years is attributable to diarrhoea. The substantial between-country variation in both diarrhoea incidence and mortality is attributable to interventions that protect children, prevent infection, and treat (...) greater than 10%. Although children in much of Africa remain at high risk of death due to diarrhoea, regions with the most deaths were outside Africa, with the highest mortality units located in Pakistan. Indonesia showed the greatest within-country geographical inequality; some regions had mortality rates nearly four times the average country rate. Reductions in mortality were correlated to improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) or reductions in child growth failure (CGF). Similarly

2020 Lancet PubMed abstract

2. Socioeconomic inequalities and type 2 diabetes complications: A systematic review. (Abstract)

Socioeconomic inequalities and type 2 diabetes complications: A systematic review. A socioeconomic gradient related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence has been demonstrated in high-income countries. However, there is no evidence of such a socioeconomic gradient regarding diabetes complications. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to collect data on risk of complications according to socioeconomic status in patients with T2D.PubMed and EMBASE were searched for English-language

2020 Diabetes & metabolism

3. Impact of Public Smoking Bans on Social Inequalities in Children's Exposure to Tobacco Smoke at Home: An Equity-Focused Systematic Review. (Abstract)

Impact of Public Smoking Bans on Social Inequalities in Children's Exposure to Tobacco Smoke at Home: An Equity-Focused Systematic Review. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of public smoking bans on social inequalities in children's secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home.Five databases were electronically searched for articles on children's SHS exposure at home related to public smoking bans. In addition, the gray literature and German public health journals were (...) considered. Search was restricted to English and German publications. Of 3037 records screened, 25 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria by either measuring SHS exposure before and after public smoking ban introduction or by comparing exposure between regions with and without smoke-free legislation. Studies were further examined whether they additionally reported on impacts on social inequalities in SHS exposure. Information on children's SHS exposure at home in relation to smoke-free legislation were

2020 Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

4. From the sticky floor to the glass ceiling and everything in between: protocol for a systematic review of barriers and facilitators to clinical academic careers and interventions to address these, with a focus on gender inequality. (Full text)

From the sticky floor to the glass ceiling and everything in between: protocol for a systematic review of barriers and facilitators to clinical academic careers and interventions to address these, with a focus on gender inequality. Gender inequality within academic medicine and dentistry is a well-recognised issue, but one which is not completely understood in terms of its causes, or interventions to facilitate equality. This systematic review aims to identify, critically appraise (...) qualifications, as well as experiences of professionals within the clinical academic pathway. Study quality will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomised controlled trials, the Newcastle-Ottawa tool for non-randomised studies, and the QARI tool for qualitative studies. Detailed plans for screening, data extraction, and analysis are provided within this protocol.This systematic review is situated within a larger project evaluating gender inequalities in clinical academic careers

2020 Systematic reviews PubMed abstract

5. Impact of specialist and primary care stop smoking support on socio-economic inequalities in cessation in the United Kingdom: a systematic review and national equity initial review completed 22 January 2019; final version accepted 19 July 2019 analysis. (Full text)

Impact of specialist and primary care stop smoking support on socio-economic inequalities in cessation in the United Kingdom: a systematic review and national equity initial review completed 22 January 2019; final version accepted 19 July 2019 analysis. To assess the impact of UK specialist and primary care-based stop smoking support on socio-economic inequalities in cessation.Systematic review and narrative synthesis, with a national equity analysis of stop smoking services (SSS). Ten

2020 Addiction (Abingdon, England) PubMed abstract

6. The contribution of work and lifestyle factors to socioeconomic inequalities in self-rated health ‒ a systematic review. (Full text)

The contribution of work and lifestyle factors to socioeconomic inequalities in self-rated health ‒ a systematic review. Objective This study aimed to systematically review the literature on the contribution of work and lifestyle factors to socioeconomic inequalities in self-rated health among workers. Methods A search for cross-sectional and longitudinal studies assessing the contribution of work and/or lifestyle factors to socioeconomic inequalities in self-rated health among workers (...) was performed in PubMed, PsycINFO and Web of Science in March 2017. Two independent reviewers performed eligibility and risk of bias assessment. The median change in odds ratio between models without and with adjustment for work or lifestyle factors across studies was calculated to quantify the contribution of work and lifestyle factors to health inequalities. A best-evidence synthesis was performed. Results Of those reviewed, 3 high-quality longitudinal and 17 cross-sectional studies consistently reported

2020 Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health PubMed abstract

7. Impact of tobacco tax increases and industry pricing on smoking behaviours and inequalities: a mixed-methods study (Full text)

Impact of tobacco tax increases and industry pricing on smoking behaviours and inequalities: a mixed-methods study Impact of tobacco tax increases and industry pricing on smoking behaviours and inequalities: a mixed-methods study Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find

2020 NIHR HTA programme PubMed abstract

8. How averse are the UK general public to inequalities in health between socioeconomic groups? A systematic review. (Full text)

How averse are the UK general public to inequalities in health between socioeconomic groups? A systematic review. There is growing interest in the use of "distributionally-sensitive" forms of economic evaluation that capture both the impact of an intervention upon average population health and the distribution of that health amongst the population. This review aims to inform the conduct of distributionally sensitive evaluations in the UK by answering three questions: (1) How averse are the UK (...) public towards inequalities in lifetime health between socioeconomic groups? (2) Does this aversion differ depending upon the type of health under consideration? (3) Are the UK public as averse to inequalities in health between socioeconomic groups as they are to inequalities in health between neutrally framed groups? EMBASE, MEDLINE, EconLit, and SSCI were searched for stated preference studies relevant to these questions in October 2017. Of the 2155 potentially relevant papers identified, 15 met

2020 The European journal of health economics : HEPAC : health economics in prevention and care PubMed abstract

9. Mediators of socioeconomic inequalities in dietary behaviours among youth: A systematic review. (Full text)

Mediators of socioeconomic inequalities in dietary behaviours among youth: A systematic review. Children and adolescents with a lower socioeconomic position have poorer dietary behaviours compared to their counterparts with a higher socioeconomic position. A better understanding of the mechanisms behind such socioeconomic inequalities is vital to identify targets for interventions aimed at tackling these inequalities. This systematic review aimed to summarize existing evidence regarding (...) and knowledge at the intrapersonal level; and availability and accessibility of food items at home, food rules and parental modelling at the interpersonal level. Few studies including mediators at the organisational, community or policy levels were found. Our review found several modifiable factors at the intrapersonal and interpersonal levels that could be targeted in interventions aimed at combating inequalities in dietary behaviours among youth. Rigorous studies exploring organisational, community

2020 Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity PubMed abstract

10. What is the evidence that differences in 'control over destiny' lead to socioeconomic inequalities in health? A theory-led systematic review of high-quality longitudinal studies on pathways in the living environment. (Full text)

What is the evidence that differences in 'control over destiny' lead to socioeconomic inequalities in health? A theory-led systematic review of high-quality longitudinal studies on pathways in the living environment. Low control and high demand in the places where people work has been shown to partially explain why those in lower socioeconomic positions experience poorer health than their counterparts in higher socioeconomic positions. It would seem likely then that experiences of control (...) in the wider living environment, beyond people's places of work, might also play a role in shaping these health inequalities. Our recent review of theory revealed potential pathways by which low control in the living environment might explain the social patterning of health via low control beliefs and low actual control.Based on the potential pathways identified in our review of theory, we conducted a systematic review of longitudinal studies on the relationship between low control in the living

2020 Journal of epidemiology and community health PubMed abstract

11. Community engagement to promote health and reduce inequalities in Spain: a narrative systematic review. (Abstract)

Community engagement to promote health and reduce inequalities in Spain: a narrative systematic review. Over the past decade, increasing attention has been paid to community engagement in health (CEH) across Europe. This study aimed to identify and review CEH interventions to promote health and reduce inequalities within the Spanish context and the key facilitators for these community processes.A systematic search in six databases, followed by a forward citation search, was conducted

2020 International journal of public health

12. Gendered Working Environments as a Determinant of Mental Health Inequalities: A Protocol for a Systematic Review. (Full text)

Gendered Working Environments as a Determinant of Mental Health Inequalities: A Protocol for a Systematic Review. Both gender and employment are critical and intersecting social determinants of mental and physical health. This paper describes the protocol used to conduct a systematic literature review of the relationship between "gendered working environments" and mental health. Gendered working environments (GWE) are conceptualised as involving: (1) differences in selection into work, and more

2020 International journal of environmental research and public health PubMed abstract

13. Urban-rural inequalities in suicide among elderly people in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (Full text)

Urban-rural inequalities in suicide among elderly people in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. China has an unusual pattern of suicides, with overall suicide rates in rural areas higher than urban areas. While suicide rates have decreased dramatically, older people increasingly contribute to the overall burden of suicide. However, it is unclear if elderly people within rural areas experience greater suicide risk than those in urban areas. We aimed to systematically review

2020 International journal for equity in health PubMed abstract

14. Health Inequalities amongst People of African Descent in the Americas, 2005-2017: A Systematic Review of the Literature. (Full text)

Health Inequalities amongst People of African Descent in the Americas, 2005-2017: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Ethnic inequalities are often associated with social determinants of health. This study seeks to identify the latest scientific evidence on inequalities in the health of people of African descent in the Americas. For this, a systematic review of the literature on health and people of African descent in the Americas was carried out in the LILACS, PubMed, MEDLINE, and IBECS (...) databases. Institutional and academic repositories were also consulted. Evidence was obtained on the presence and persistence of health inequalities in the population of African descent in the Americas from the identification of five types of quantitative and qualitative evidence: (1) ethnic/racial concept and variables; (2) relations with other social determinants; (3) health risks; (4) barriers and inequalities in health services; and, (5) morbi-mortality from chronic diseases. Studies

2020 International journal of environmental research and public health PubMed abstract

15. Social Inequalities in Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution: A Systematic Review in the WHO European Region. (Full text)

Social Inequalities in Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution: A Systematic Review in the WHO European Region. Ambient air pollution is a long-standing and significant public health issue. The aim of this review is to systematically examine the peer-reviewed evidence on social inequalities and ambient air pollution in the World Health Organization European Region. Articles published between 2010 and 2017 were analyzed in the review. In total 31 articles were included in the review. There is good

2020 International journal of environmental research and public health PubMed abstract

16. Personalisation schemes in social care and inequality: review of the evidence and early theorising. (Full text)

Personalisation schemes in social care and inequality: review of the evidence and early theorising. Personalisation is a growing international policy paradigm that aims to create both improved outcomes for individuals, and reduce fiscal pressures on government, by giving greater choice and control to citizens accessing social services. In personalisation schemes, individuals purchase services from a 'service market' using individual budgets or vouchers given to them by governments (...) skills, personalisation has even greater potential to widen and entrench social inequalities. Despite the increase in numbers of people now accessing services through such schemes, there has been no examination of how different social groups benefit from these schemes, how this widens and entrenches social inequities, and - in turn - what can be done to mitigate this.This article presents a meta-review of the evidence on personalisation and inequality. A qualitative meta-analysis was undertaking

2020 International journal for equity in health PubMed abstract

17. What impact do chronic disease self-management support interventions have on health inequity gaps related to socioeconomic status: a systematic review. (Full text)

What impact do chronic disease self-management support interventions have on health inequity gaps related to socioeconomic status: a systematic review. The social gradient in chronic disease (CD) is well-documented, and the ability to effectively self-manage is crucial to reducing morbidity and mortality from CD. This systematic review aimed to assess the moderating effect of socioeconomic status on self-management support (SMS) interventions in relation to participation, retention and post

2020 BMC health services research PubMed abstract

18. Characteristics of successful programmes targeting gender inequality and restrictive gender norms for the health and wellbeing of children, adolescents, and young adults: a systematic review. (Full text)

Characteristics of successful programmes targeting gender inequality and restrictive gender norms for the health and wellbeing of children, adolescents, and young adults: a systematic review. In the context of the Sustainable Development Goals and the shifting global burden of disease, this systematic review analyses the evidence from rigorously evaluated programmes that seek to transform the gendered social norms undermining the health and wellbeing of children, adolescents, and young adults (...) . The aim of this study was threefold: to describe the landscape of gender-transformative programmes that attempt to influence health-related outcomes; to identify mechanisms through which successful programmes work; and to highlight where gaps might exist in implementation and evaluation.We systematically reviewed rigorous evaluations published between Jan 1, 2000, and Nov 1, 2018 of programmes that sought to decrease gender inequalities and transform restrictive gender norms to improve the health

2020 The Lancet. Global health PubMed abstract

19. Assessing evidence of interventions addressing inequity among migrant populations: a two-stage systematic review. (Full text)

Assessing evidence of interventions addressing inequity among migrant populations: a two-stage systematic review. Everyone has the right to achieve the standard of health and well-being. Migrants are considered as vulnerable populations due to the lack of access to health services and financial protection in health. Several interventions have been developed to improve migrant population health, but little is known about whether these interventions have considered the issue of equity as part (...) of their outcome measurement.To assess the evidence of health interventions in addressing inequity among migrants.We adopted a two-stage searching approach to ensure the feasibility of this review. First, reviews of interventions for migrants were searched from five databases: PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EMBASE until June 2017. Second, full articles included in the identified reviews were retrieved. Primary studies included in the identified reviews were then evaluated as to whether they met

2020 International journal for equity in health PubMed abstract

20. Effects of community health worker interventions on socioeconomic inequities in maternal and newborn health in low-income and middle-income countries: a mixed-methods systematic review. (Full text)

Effects of community health worker interventions on socioeconomic inequities in maternal and newborn health in low-income and middle-income countries: a mixed-methods systematic review. Community health worker (CHW) interventions are promoted to improve maternal and newborn health in low-income and middle-income countries. We reviewed the evidence on their effectiveness in reducing socioeconomic inequities in maternal and newborn health outcomes, how they achieve these effects, and contextual (...) and/or essential newborn care. One study found that a CHW home visit intervention did not reduce wealth inequities in skilled birth attendance. A study of women's groups reported greater reductions in neonatal mortality among lower compared with higher socioeconomic groups. Equity was most improved when CHWs had relevant support for assisting women to improve health practices and access health care within community contexts.While current evidence remains limited, particularly for mortality, existing studies

2020 BMJ global health PubMed abstract