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Latest & greatest articles for inequality
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Impact on health inequalities of rising prosperity in England 1998-2007, and implications for performance incentives: longitudinal ecological study. To investigate whether the uneven rise in prosperity between 1999 and 2008 accounted for differential increases in life expectancy in English local authorities.Longitudinal ecological study.324 local authorities in England, classified by their baseline level of deprivation. M: ain outcome measures Multivariable regression was used to investigate (...) the association between trends in prosperity between 1998 and 2007 and trends in life expectancy. Trends in health inequalities were assessed by comparing the experience of Spearhead local authorities (the 70 most deprived in 1998) with the average for all English local authorities.Those local authorities that experienced the greatest improvement in prosperity experienced greater increases in life expectancy. With each 1% absolute decline in unemployment, life expectancy increased by 2.2 (95% confidence
Use of relative and absolute effect measures in reporting health inequalities: structured review. To examine the frequency of reporting of absolute and relative effect measures in health inequalities research.Structured review of selected general medical and public health journals.344 articles published during 2009 in American Journal of Epidemiology, American Journal of Public Health, BMJ, Epidemiology, International Journal of Epidemiology, JAMA, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health (...) % (258/344) of all articles reported only relative measures in the full text; among these, 46% (119/258) contained no information on absolute baseline risks that would facilitate calculation of absolute effect measures. 18% (61/344) of all articles reported only absolute measures in the full text, and 7% (25/344) reported both absolute and relative measures. These results were consistent across journals, exposures, and outcomes.Health inequalities are most commonly reported using only relative
Contribution of modifiable risk factors to social inequalities in type 2 diabetes: prospective Whitehall II cohort study. To assess the contribution of modifiable risk factors to social inequalities in the incidence of type 2 diabetes when these factors are measured at study baseline or repeatedly over follow-up and when long term exposure is accounted for.Prospective cohort study with risk factors (health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, and physical activity), body mass index (...) 1.48), and 45% (28% to 75%) when long term exposure over the follow-up was accounted for (attenuated hazard ratio 1.41). With additional adjustment for biological risk markers, a total of 53% (29% to 88%) of the socioeconomic differential was explained (attenuated hazard ratio 1.35, 1.05 to 1.72).Modifiable risk factors such as health behaviours and obesity, when measured repeatedly over time, explain almost half of the social inequalities in incidence of type 2 diabetes. This is more than was seen
Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in risk of sudden infant death syndrome, other causes of infant mortality, and stillbirth in Scotland: population based study. To compare changes in inequalities in sudden infant death syndrome with other causes of infant mortality and stillbirth in Scotland, 1985-2008.Retrospective cohort study.Scotland 1985-2008, analysed by four epochs of six years.Singleton births of infants with birth weight >500 g born at 28-43 weeks' gestation.Sudden infant death
Increasing incidence of serious infectious diseases and inequalities in New Zealand: a national epidemiological study. Although the burden of infectious diseases seems to be decreasing in developed countries, few national studies have measured the total incidence of these diseases. We aimed to develop and apply a robust systematic method for monitoring the epidemiology of serious infectious diseases.We did a national epidemiological study with all hospital admissions for infectious and non (...) admissions were the events of interest.Infectious diseases made the largest contribution to hospital admissions of any cause. Their contribution increased from 20·5% of acute admissions in 1989-93, to 26·6% in 2004-08. We noted clear ethnic and social inequalities in infectious disease risk. In 2004-08, the age-standardised rate ratio was 2·15 (95% CI 2·14-2·16) for Māori (indigenous New Zealanders) and 2·35 (2·34-2·37) for Pacific peoples compared with the European and other group. The ratio was 2·81 (2
Fair Enough? Inviting Inequities in State Health Benefits. 22316422 2012 02 28 2012 02 23 1533-4406 366 8 2012 Feb 23 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Fair enough? Inviting inequities in state health benefits. 681-3 10.1056/NEJMp1200751 Ruger Jennifer Prah JP Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA. eng Journal Article 2012 02 08 United States N Engl J Med 0255562 0028-4793 AIM IM Health Policy Humans Insurance Benefits legislation & jurisprudence Insurance Coverage
Health inequalities: an Olympic-size challenge Health inequalities: an Olympic-size challenge | The King's Fund Main navigation Health and care services Leadership, systems and organisations Patients, people and society Policy, finance and performance Search term Apply Health inequalities: an Olympic-size challenge This content relates to the following topics: Share this content Authors The good news is that government interventions have had a positive impact on healthy living. The bad news
Health inequalities and population health Health inequalities and population health | Advice | NICE Health inequalities and population health Local government briefing [LGB4] Published date: October 2012 Advice Between 2012 and 2015 we developed a series of local government briefings for a range of public health topics. We no longer have the capacity to maintain these to an acceptable standard and the information is now out of date, so these were removed from our website on 30 March 2018
Human papilloma virus vaccination programs reduce health inequity in most scenarios: a simulation study Human papilloma virus vaccination programs reduce health inequity in most scenarios: a simulation study | SCPHRP Publication Information Date of Publication 31/10/2012 Link
Strategies for reducing inequalities and improving developmental outcomes for young children in low-income and middle-income countries. This report is the second in a Series on early child development in low-income and middle-income countries and assesses the effectiveness of early child development interventions, such as parenting support and preschool enrolment. The evidence reviewed suggests that early child development can be improved through these interventions, with effects greater (...) for programmes of higher quality and for the most vulnerable children. Other promising interventions for the promotion of early child development include children's educational media, interventions with children at high risk, and combining the promotion of early child development with conditional cash transfer programmes. Effective investments in early child development have the potential to reduce inequalities perpetuated by poverty, poor nutrition, and restricted learning opportunities. A simulation model
Inequality in early childhood: risk and protective factors for early child development. Inequality between and within populations has origins in adverse early experiences. Developmental neuroscience shows how early biological and psychosocial experiences affect brain development. We previously identified inadequate cognitive stimulation, stunting, iodine deficiency, and iron-deficiency anaemia as key risks that prevent millions of young children from attaining their developmental potential
Obesity: Inequalities in EBM, medical research and policy Obesity: Inequalities in EBM, medical research and policy | TrustTheEvidence.net Syndicate Discover the truth behind the research findings that affect everyday healthcare. » » Links Tags HONcode Certified This site complies with the for trustworthy health information: . Obesity: Inequalities in EBM, medical research and policy Ami Banerjee Last edited 26th August 2011 Today’s main news story is that and will continue to rise (...) and global health policymakers put evidence into practice? Evidence-based medicine aims, at the end of the day, to institute changes which make the health of individuals better. It seems that there are inequalities in the way evidence is put into practice, based not just on societal interests, but on conflicts of interest, particularly multi-billion dollar industries. If we are serious about EBM and , we should take lessons learned from other sectors and apply them accordingly. Tags: to post comments
The growing global health inequality of new drugs and clinical trials The growing global health inequality of new drugs and clinical trials | TrustTheEvidence.net Syndicate Discover the truth behind the research findings that affect everyday healthcare. » » Links Tags HONcode Certified This site complies with the for trustworthy health information: . The growing global health inequality of new drugs and clinical trials Ami Banerjee Last edited 30th August 2011 At the European Cardiology (...) than 50% even in rich countries. In Africa, 80% of eligible patients were taking no drugs at all. As Salim Yusuf said, treatment gaps like this in the HIV/AIDS epidemic led to human rights arguments for broadening of antiretroviral treatment and mobilisation of the global health community and governments. The inequality was also visible at concurrent “Meet the Triallists” sessions. Delegates clamoured to get to the trial update for the ARISTOTLE trial of the novel anticoagulant, apixaban, but I
Socioeconomic inequalities in outcome of pregnancy and neonatal mortality associated with congenital anomalies: population based study. To investigate socioeconomic inequalities in outcome of pregnancy and neonatal mortality associated with congenital anomalies.Retrospective population based registry study.East Midlands and South Yorkshire regions of England (representing about 10% of births in England and Wales).All registered cases of nine selected congenital anomalies with poor prognostic (...) with deprivation (rate ratio 0.99, 0.84 to 1.17). The rate of termination after antenatal diagnosis of a congenital anomaly was lower in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived areas (63% v 79%; rate ratio 0.80, 0.65 to 0.97). Consequently there were significant socioeconomic inequalities in the rate of live birth and neonatal mortality associated with the presence of any of these nine anomalies. Compared with the least deprived areas, the most deprived areas had a 61% higher rate of live
Impact of Quality and Outcomes Framework on health inequalities Impact of Quality and Outcomes Framework on health inequalities | The King's Fund Main navigation Health and care services Leadership, systems and organisations Patients, people and society Policy, finance and performance Search term Apply Impact of Quality and Outcomes Framework on health inequalities: Summary of full report This content relates to the following topics: Part of Share this content Related details Authors Artak (...) Khachatryan Andrew Wallace Stephen Peckham Tammy Boyce Stephen Gillam Publication details ISBN 978 1 85717 618 6 Pages 14 When it came to power in 1997 the Labour government committed to reducing health inequalities, and made extra funding available to those primary care trusts (PCTs) in areas of the country with the worst health and deprivation indicators (Spearhead areas). The General Medical Services contract introduced a pay-for-performance scheme known as the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF
[Evaluation of the impact in inequality before and after the enhancement of health insurance coverage of cancer] [Evaluation of the impact in inequality before and after the enhancement of health insurance coverage of cancer] [Evaluation of the impact in inequality before and after the enhancement of health insurance coverage of cancer] Kwon SM, Kim SJ, Yoon Y, Jung Y, Kim HS, Oh JH, Choi YS, Kim GY, Tae YH, Kang BJ Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology (...) assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Kwon SM, Kim SJ, Yoon Y, Jung Y, Kim HS, Oh JH, Choi YS, Kim GY, Tae YH, Kang BJ. [Evaluation of the impact in inequality before and after the enhancement of health insurance coverage of cancer] Seoul: National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency (NECA). NECA-M-11-001. 2011 Authors' conclusions The purpose of this study is to evaluate how the enforcement
Nature of socioeconomic inequalities in neonatal mortality: population based study. To investigate time trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cause specific neonatal mortality in order to assess changing patterns in mortality due to different causes, particularly prematurity, and identify key areas of focus for future intervention strategies.Retrospective cohort study.England.All neonatal deaths in singleton infants born between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2007.Cause specific neonatal (...) . For intrapartum events and sudden infant deaths (only 13.5% of deaths) the relative deprivation gap narrowed slightly.Almost 80% of the relative deprivation gap in all cause mortality was explained by premature birth and congenital anomalies. To reduce socioeconomic inequalities in mortality, a change in focus is needed to concentrate on these two influential causes of death. Understanding the link between deprivation and preterm birth should be a major research priority to identify interventions to reduce
Variation and inequality-what are the causes? Variation and inequality-what are the causes? | TrustTheEvidence.net Syndicate Discover the truth behind the research findings that affect everyday healthcare. » » Links Tags HONcode Certified This site complies with the for trustworthy health information: . Variation and inequality-what are the causes? Ami Banerjee Last edited 26th November 2010 Yesterday the was launched. It aims to “address variations in activity and spend within the NHS (...) ” and “search for un-warranted variation”. Unwarranted variation is defined as “Variation in the utilization of health care services that cannot be explained by variation in patient or patient preferences”, and addressing it may “maximise health outcome and minimise inequalities”. The media coverage, as expected, has focused on the shocking of NHS healthcare with a . Across countries and across disease areas, there has been a flurry of research to show both VARIATION and INEQUALITIES. What do these words
Inequalities in premature mortality in Britain: observational study from 1921 to 2007. To report on the extent of inequality in premature mortality as measured between geographical areas in Britain.Observational study of routinely collected mortality data and public records. Population subdivided by age, sex, and geographical area (parliamentary constituencies from 1991 to2007, pre-1974 local authorities over a longer time span).Great Britain.Entire population aged under 75 from 1990 to 2007 (...) , and entire population aged under 65 in the periods 1921-39, 1950-3, 1959-63, 1969-73, and 1981-2007.Relative index of inequality (RII) and ratios of inequality in age-sex standardised mortality ratios under ages 75 and 65. The relative index of inequality is the relative rate of mortality for the hypothetically worst-off compared with the hypothetically best-off person in the population, assuming a linear association between socioeconomic position and risk of mortality. The ratio of inequality
Association of leg-length inequality with knee osteoarthritis: a cohort study. Leg-length inequality is common in the general population and may accelerate development of knee osteoarthritis.To determine whether leg-length inequality is associated with prevalent, incident, and progressive knee osteoarthritis.Prospective observational cohort study.Population samples from Birmingham, Alabama, and Iowa City, Iowa.3026 participants aged 50 to 79 years with or at high risk for knee (...) osteoarthritis.The exposure was leg-length inequality, measured by full-limb radiography. The outcomes were prevalent, incident, and progressive knee osteoarthritis. Radiographic osteoarthritis was defined as Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 or greater, and symptomatic osteoarthritis was defined as radiographic disease in a consistently painful knee.Compared with leg-length inequality less than 1 cm, leg-length inequality of 1 cm or more was associated with prevalent radiographic (53% vs. 36%; odds ratio [OR], 1.9