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Latest & greatest articles for inequality
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Association of leg-length inequality with knee osteoarthritis: a cohort study. Leg-length inequality is common in the general population and may accelerate development of knee osteoarthritis.To determine whether leg-length inequality is associated with prevalent, incident, and progressive knee osteoarthritis.Prospective observational cohort study.Population samples from Birmingham, Alabama, and Iowa City, Iowa.3026 participants aged 50 to 79 years with or at high risk for knee (...) osteoarthritis.The exposure was leg-length inequality, measured by full-limb radiography. The outcomes were prevalent, incident, and progressive knee osteoarthritis. Radiographic osteoarthritis was defined as Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 or greater, and symptomatic osteoarthritis was defined as radiographic disease in a consistently painful knee.Compared with leg-length inequality less than 1 cm, leg-length inequality of 1 cm or more was associated with prevalent radiographic (53% vs. 36%; odds ratio [OR], 1.9
Educational inequalities in mortality over four decades in Norway: prospective study of middle aged men and women followed for cause specific mortality, 1960-2000. To determine the extent to which educational inequalities in relation to mortality widened in Norway during 1960-2000 and which causes of death were the main drivers of this disparity.Nationally representative prospective study.Four cohorts of the Norwegian population aged 45-64 years in 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990 and followed up (...) for mortality over 10 years.359 547 deaths and 32 904 589 person years.All cause mortality and deaths due to cancer of lung, trachea, or bronchus; other cancer; cardiovascular diseases; suicide; external causes; chronic lower respiratory tract diseases; or other causes. Absolute and relative indices of inequality were used to present differences in mortality by educational level (basic, secondary, and tertiary).Mortality fell from the 1960s to the 1990s in all educational groups. At the same time
Tobacco Control, Inequalities in Health and Action at the Local Level in England Tobacco control, inequalities in health and action at the local level in England. FINAL REPORT 31 March 2011 Grantholders Amanda Amos, University of Edinburgh Linda Bauld, University of Stirling Sarah Hill, University of Edinburgh Steve Platt, University of Edinburgh Jude Robinson, University of Liverpool Project Team Amanda Amos, University of Edinburgh Linda Bauld, University of Stirling David Clifford (...) . INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………17 1.1 Background…………………………………………………………………………..17 1.2 Aims………………………………………………………………………………….17 1.3 Research questions…………………………………………………………………...17 1.4 Structure of the report……………………………………….………………………..18 1.5 Resources and contributions……………………………………………….…………19 2. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE EVIDENCE ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TOBACCO CONTROL INTERVENTIONS IN REDUCING INEQUALITIES IN SMOKING 2.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………21 2.2 Methods
Will policies for the early years reduce inequalities in health? A synthesis of evidence to inform policy development, using the examples of unintentional injury and childcare 1 Will policies for the early years reduce inequalities in health? A synthesis of evidence to inform policy development, using the examples of unintentional injury and childcare. Final report Law, Catherine 1 ; Abbas, Jake 2 ; Duncan, Helen 2 ; Ferguson, Brian 2 ; Graham, Hilary 3 ; Jenkins, Richard 1 ; Li, Leah 1 (...) and childcare. Some of these less well researched areas were then explored with secondary data, summarised below. Because these are based on observational data, causality cannot be assumed. Policies and inequalities in unintentional injury in young children Home environment in relation to inequalities in injury · Preschool children from less advantaged backgrounds were more likely to have visited a GP or A&E due to an unintentional injury which occurred in the home and they were also more likely to live
The impact on health inequalities of approaches to community engagement in the New Deal for Communities regeneration initiative: a mixed-methods evaluation The impact on health inequalities of approaches to community engagement in the New Deal for Communities regeneration initiative: a mixed-methods evaluation Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please
Socioeconomic inequalities in survival and provision of neonatal care: population based study of very preterm infants. To assess socioeconomic inequalities in survival and provision of neonatal care among very preterm infants.Prospective cohort study in a geographically defined population.Former Trent health region of the United Kingdom (covering about a twelfth of UK births).All infants born between 22+0 and 32+6 weeks' gestation from 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2007 who were alive
Could Medicare Readmission Policy Exacerbate Health Care System Inequity? The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services recently started publicly reporting hospital readmission rates. Health care reform proposals include readmission provisions as vehicles to promote care coordination and achieve savings. Current approaches ascribe variability in hospital readmission primarily to differences in patient medical risk and hospital performance. These approaches do not adequately account (...) for the effect of patient sociodemographic and community factors that influence health care utilization and outcomes. The evidence base on cost-effective and generalizable care management techniques to reduce readmission is still evolving. Although readmission-related policies may prove to be a transformational force in health care reform, their incorrect application in facilities serving vulnerable communities may increase health care system inequity. Policy options can mitigate this potential.
Socioeconomic inequalities in hearing loss in a healthy population sample: The HUNT Study We assessed socioeconomic position and hearing loss in a Norwegian population of 17 593 men and women aged 30-54 years in 1984-1986 who were followed for 11 years. We used analysis of variance, logistic regression, and population-attributable fraction analyses to examine associations. Significant socioeconomic inequalities in hearing loss were found among men. Adjusted odds ratios for hearing loss were
Coronary heart disease mortality among young adults in Scotland in relation to social inequalities: time trend study. To examine recent trends and social inequalities in age specific coronary heart disease mortality.Time trend analysis using joinpoint regression.Scotland, 1986-2006.Men and women aged 35 years and over.Age adjusted and age, sex, and deprivation specific coronary heart disease mortality.Persistent sixfold social differentials in coronary heart disease mortality were seen between (...) and women aged 45-54 showed similar flattening from about 2003. Rates in women aged 55-64 may also now be flattening. The flattening of coronary heart disease mortality in younger men and women was confined to the two most deprived fifths.Premature death from coronary heart disease remains a major contributor to social inequalities. Furthermore, the flattening of the decline in mortality for coronary heart disease among younger adults may represent an early warning sign. The observed trends were
Working for health? Evidence from systematic reviews on the effects on health and health inequalities of organisational changes to the psychosocial work environment To map the health effects of interventions which aim to alter the psychosocial work environment, with a particular focus on differential impacts by socio-economic status, gender, ethnicity, or age.A systematic approach was used to identify, appraise and summarise existing systematic reviews (umbrella review) that examined the health (...) on health. Importantly, five reviews suggested that organisational level psychosocial workplace interventions may have the potential to reduce health inequalities amongst employees.Policy makers should consider organisational level changes to the psychosocial work environment when seeking to improve the health of the working age population.
Inequalities in reported use of breast and cervical screening in Great Britain: analysis of cross sectional survey data. To investigate the relation between women's reported use of breast and cervical screening and sociodemographic characteristics.Cross sectional multipurpose survey.Private households, Great Britain. Population 3185 women aged 40-74 interviewed in the National Statistics Omnibus Survey 2005-7.Ever had a mammogram, ever had a cervical smear, and, for each, timing of most recent (...) of cervical screening was greater among more educated women but was not significantly associated with cars, housing tenure, or region.Most (84%) eligible women report having had both breast and cervical screening, but 3% report never having had either. Some inequalities exist in the reported use of screening, which differ by screening type; indicators of wealth were important for breast screening and ethnicity for cervical screening. The routine collection within general practice of additional
Inequalities in maternal health: national cohort study of ethnic variation in severe maternal morbidities. To describe on a national basis ethnic differences in severe maternal morbidity in the United Kingdom.National cohort study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS).All hospitals with consultant led maternity units in the UK.686 women with severe maternal morbidity between February 2005 and February 2006.Rates, risk ratios, and odds ratios of severe maternal morbidity (...) . This highlights to clinicians and policy makers the importance of tailored maternity services and improved access to care for women from ethnic minorities. National information on the ethnicity of women giving birth in the UK is needed to enable ongoing accurate study of these inequalities.
Explaining educational inequalities in preterm birth: the generation r study Although a low socioeconomic status has consistently been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, little is known about the pathways through which socioeconomic disadvantage influences preterm birth.To examine mechanisms that might underlie the association between the educational level of pregnant women as an indicator of socioeconomic status, and preterm birth.The study was nested in a population-based (...) , and lifestyle habits. Apparently, educational inequalities in preterm birth go together with an accumulation of multiple adverse circumstances among women with a low education. A number of explanatory mechanisms unravelled in the present study seem to be modifiable by intervention programmes.
Improving partnership working to reduce health inequalities Improving partnership working to reduce health inequalities | The King's Fund Main navigation Health and care services Leadership, systems and organisations Patients, people and society Policy, finance and performance Search term Apply Improving partnership working to reduce health inequalities This content relates to the following topics: Share this content Authors Tammy Boyce Professor David Hunter Working in partnership is central (...) to reducing health inequalities – one department acting alone cannot tackle an issue that does not respect organisational boundaries. But unfortunately, all too frequently, only lip service is paid to partnership working in place of real engagement with practicable and sustainable outcomes. The King's Fund, in partnership with the Strategic Review of Health Inequalities Post 2010 led by Professor Sir Michael Marmot, held a seminar to discuss how to improve partnership working and health inequalities.So
Strategic review of health inequalities in England post-2010 (Marmot Review) Strategic review of health inequalities in England post-2010 (Marmot Review) | The King's Fund Main navigation Health and care services Leadership, systems and organisations Patients, people and society Policy, finance and performance Search term Apply Strategic review of health inequalities in England post-2010 (Marmot Review) Consultation response This content relates to the following topics: Share this content (...) This paper is a response to the Marmot Review consultation. It provides a comprehensive analysis of the proposals to reduce health inequalities and a range of evidence to underpin future health policy and action. The Marmot Review helps to clarify the role of the Department of Health and the NHS in reducing health inequalities. This is welcome guidance as the role that the NHS can play in doing so is often vague. Related content You may also be interested in Quick links Connect with us Latest Tweet
[The state of research into inequalities in the incidence, death, prevention and healthcare in cancer in Spain. A bibliometric study and literature review.] Investigacion en Espana sobre desigualdades en la incidencia, mortalidad, prevencion y atencion del cancer. Estudio bibliometrico y de revision de la literatura. [The state of research into inequalities in the incidence, death, prevention and healthcare in cancer in Spain. A bibliometric study and literature review.] Investigacion en Espana (...) sobre desigualdades en la incidencia, mortalidad, prevencion y atencion del cancer. Estudio bibliometrico y de revision de la literatura. [The state of research into inequalities in the incidence, death, prevention and healthcare in cancer in Spain. A bibliometric study and literature review.] Aguado Romeo MJ, Marquez Calderon S, Rohlfs I, Sarmiento Gonzalez-Nieto V. Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation
Inequalities and the mental health of young people: a systematic review of secondary school-based cognitive behavioural interventions Inequalities and the mental health of young people: a systematic review of secondary school-based cognitive behavioural interventions Inequalities and the mental health of young people: a systematic review of secondary school-based cognitive behavioural interventions Kavanagh J, Oliver S, Caird J, Tucker H, Greaves A, Harden A, Oakley A, Lorenc T, Thomas J CRD (...) health educational programmes and explore the impact of these interventions on inequalities in young people's mental health. Searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, ASSIA, Trials Register of Public Health Interventions (TROPHI), Database of Public Health Effectiveness Reviews (DOPHER), C2-SPECTR and PsiTri were searched for English-language articles published from 1996 onwards. Various websites were searched, references from relevant
Inequalities and the mental health of young people: a systematic review of secondary school-based cognitive behavioural interventions School-based cognitive-behavioural interventions: a systematic review of effects and inequalities 09 April 2019 Links Download report (pdf) Inequalities and the mental health of young people: a systematic review of secondary school-based cognitive behavioural interventions What do we want to know? Health inequalities are recognised as an important problem both (...) nationally and internationally. The research literature which demonstrates the complex interactions between the key axes of social differences in populations including class, education, occupation, income/assets, gender, ethnicity; in relation to health outcomes is yet to be matched by a strong body of evidence of what works to reduce health inequalities. Systematic reviewers wanting to examine how interventions impact upon gaps and gradients have been hampered by a lack of tested tools and methods
Health promotion, inequalities and young people's health: a systematic review or research Health promotion, inequalities and young people 10 April 2019 Links Download report (pdf) Health promotion, inequalities and young people's health: a systematic review of research What do we want to know? Health inequalities are recognised as an important problem nationally and internationally. There is policy interest in improving the health of the most disadvantaged, reducing the gap between the most (...) and least disadvantaged, and reducing gradients across the whole population. Health inequalities arise from variations in social, economic and environmental influences along the life course. Health promotion, particularly when it uses social and structural interventions developed by multi-disciplinary teams working with young people, not merely for them, has the potential to reduce health inequalities among young people immediately, and in their later lives. This study describes how much health
Inequalities in healthy life years in the 25 countries of the European Union in 2005: a cross-national meta-regression analysis. Although life expectancy in the European Union (EU) is increasing, whether most of these extra years are spent in good health is unclear. This information would be crucial to both contain health-care costs and increase labour-force participation for older people. We investigated inequalities in life expectancies and healthy life years (HLYs) at 50 years of age (...) years in men and women (p<0.039 for both indicators and sexes); however, in men alone, long-term unemployment was negatively associated (p=0.023) and life-long learning positively associated (p=0.021) with HLYs at 50 years of age.Substantial inequalities in HLYs at 50 years exist within EU countries. Our findings suggest that, without major improvements in population health, the target of increasing participation of older people into the labour force will be difficult to meet in all 25 EU